Biodiversity simply means “the variability of living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are fundamental for ecologically sustainable development. Biodiversity is part of our food and livelihoods and is a resource on which families, communities, nations and future generations depend.
There are three levels of biodiversity, the first is genetic diversity, the second is the diversity of species and the third is the diversity of communities or ecosystems. Genetic diversity is the variation of genes within a particular species that allows them to adapt to a changing environment. It is about genetic diversity because of which we see population differences within the same species, like butterflies of different colors. Species diversity is simply the difference between different species. Genetically different species do not intersect in nature. Closely related species have some sort of common characteristics. In the diversity of species, zero means infinite diversity and one means only one species. The diversity of the community / ecosystem means the difference in the habitats of different species. A habitat is the aggregate sum of the climate, vegetation and geography of the region in which the species live. There are different types of ecosystems or community habitats like deserts, tropical forests, etc. Any change in climate, geography and vegetation in a region leads to changes in the habitat patterns of species adapted to these conditions.
There are two parameters by which biodiversity is measured, the first is species richness and the second is species regularity. Species richness simply means the number of species living in community. There are three types of cash richness 1; alpha diversity: this is the diversity of species in the habitat at the local level. 2; beta diversity; it is a comparison between the diversity in the ecosystem or the communities. 3: gamma diversity; it is the measure of overall diversity in different ecosystems. Species regularity is the measure of the proportion of species in a given area. The low uniformity means that few species dominate the region. Biodiversity plays an important role in the food chain and the food web. In each food chain, a living species is present. If there are small changes in these species, it will affect the food chain and so will the food web. That is, if the population of a species decreases in an ecosystem, it will impact other species and not only the food chain but also the food chain will be disrupted.
Biodiversity provides us with different services such as ecosystem services, social services and biological services. Ecosystem services, it protects water resources, controls pollution, soil formation and protection, etc. social services such as cultural values, education and research, tourism and recreation. Food, medicine, etc. are biological services.
The loss of biodiversity has two causes. The first is natural like floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, species rivalry and disease. and second, anthropogenic or man-made causes like hunting poaching, catching the destruction of polluted habitat, etc. The man-made cause is the main cause of biodiversity loss. Although natural causes are also there to destroy biodiversity, it is seen that the speed of man-made causes is more than the speed of nature’s causes to destroy biodiversity. Natural causes are there to keep biodiversity in check and in balance. This does not allow any species to increase too much to stress the ecosystem or suddenly decrease so that other species are negatively affected. But there are causes like flooding that affect the biodiversity of this area, but not all biodiversity. The anthropogenic causes of biodiversity loss have a slow effect but with a profound impact. We cannot control the natural causes but it is our responsibility to control the human activities responsible for the loss of biodiversity. It is we who have destroyed biodiversity and it is only us who can save it from such destruction by implementing many measures whether legislative or social. More than that, we must first of all make ourselves aware of our responsibilities, raising awareness through different platforms is the best way to raise awareness about biodiversity conservation. When people know, the legislation works. Conservation of biodiversity is therefore the only way to balance this biosphere.
There are two modes of biodiversity conservation, the first is in situ and the second is ex situ. In situ means the conservation of biodiversity in their natural habitat. The means of in situ conservation are the construction of national parks, sanctuaries, biosphere reserves, reserved and protected forests. Ex situ conservation measures include the construction of zoos, zoos and botanical gardens, here animals are raised and plants are cultivated and then reintroduced into their natural habitat. Seed banks, botanical and horticultural and recreational gardens are another solution.
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