large scale – Biofera Mon, 14 Mar 2022 23:29:28 +0000 en-US hourly 1 large scale – Biofera 32 32 Countries Developing Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) Fri, 11 Mar 2022 17:27:57 +0000

A central bank digital currency (CBDC) is a digital form of cash issued by a country’s central bank. Digital forms of money are already widely used today. When you swipe your debit or credit card instead of using cash, or when you get paid by direct deposit, the associated financial institution must digitally record the transaction and update your account balance.

A CBDC would support systems already established by private financial institutions by issuing digital fiat currency fully backed by a central bank. In most countries, the only type of central bank money available to the public are physical banknotes.

Interest in CBDCs has exploded in recent years. According to the Atlantic Council, an independent think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C., a total of 87 countries are planning to publish a CBDC as of March 2022. Less than two years prior, in May 2020, only 35 countries were considering a CBDC .

This article will focus on some of the biggest countries currently developing a CBDC.

Key points to remember

  • The number of countries planning to launch a CBDC has exploded over the past two years.
  • Russia and India have already launched pilot CBDCs which are currently being tested.
  • The United States has no plans to issue a CBDC, but the Federal Reserve recently invited the public to start an open discussion about the value of a CBDC in the United States.
  • Nine countries have fully launched a CBDC.


In February 2022, India’s Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced that the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) would introduce a digital rupee in the fiscal year 2022 to 2023, which begins on April 1, 2022. If it sticks to its plans, India will be one of the biggest economies to issue a CBDC.

The announcement came after a number of conflicting reports from the country’s central bank, starting in 2018, when it threatened to ban all private cryptocurrency trading in India. This law was struck down in March 2020 by the Indian Supreme Court.

Details about India’s CBDC are scarce, but Sitharaman said a CBDC would boost India’s economy, increase efficiency and reduce costs in the country’s currency management system, and provide a stable and regulated digital currency that would counteract private cryptocurrencies.

In a speech on February 14, 2022, Shri T Rabi Sankar, Deputy Governor of the RBI, expressed concern that the large-scale adoption of private cryptocurrencies “would undermine the ability of authorities to control the money supply or interest rates”.

Along with announcing a digital rupee, India announced that it would tax private cryptocurrency transactions at a flat rate of 30%.


The Bank of Russia first announced its intention to launch a digital ruble in October 2017. The country’s central bank said a CBDC would reduce the cost of payment services, promote competition among financial institutions, provide a convenient means of payment for its citizens in territories with limited access to financial infrastructure, and reduce dependency. from Russia to the US dollar.

The digital ruble will be built on a hybrid platform that combines distributed ledger technology (DLT) and central control of the Bank of Russia. Unlike other countries developing digital currencies, Russia plans to make its CBDC available offline.

In June 2021, the Bank of Russia announced a partnership with 12 banks, including Sberbank, VTB, Gazprombank and Alfa Bank. In December 2021, Russia announced that a digital ruble prototype had been completed and a number of test transactions using the digital ruble had been successful.

After Russia invaded Ukraine in February 2022, many commentators indicated that Russia could use cryptocurrency to evade sanctions imposed by other nations. A digital ruble would likely expand Russia’s ability to circumvent international sanctions.


Brazil has been exploring a CDBC since at least 2020, after the successful deployment of PIX, an instant payment system created by the Central Bank of Brazil (BCB). There have been 7 billion transactions made, with over 60% of the adult population counted as PIX users. Assured that Brazil has the infrastructure for a digital currency, the BCB said it would launch a digital real pilot in 2022, with a final version expected in 2024.

Speaking in January 2021, Senator Rodrigo Cunha, President of the Brazilian Commission for Science and Technology (CCT), explained that a digital real issued by the BCB would increase the efficiency of the monetary system, facilitate settlement faster and safer international financial transactions, and—thanks to the inherent traceability of a CBDC—help fight money laundering, corruption, tax evasion, drug trafficking, and terrorism.

Conflicting reports have emerged regarding the technology used in the real Brazilian digital pilot. Cryptocurrency platform Lithosphere, developed by Seattle-based blockchain company KaJ Labs, issued a press release saying it would partner with BCB to launch digital real, but BCB later debunked this claim.

United States

Although the United States has no confirmed plans to launch a digital currency, the Federal Reserve Bank has shown interest in CBDCs. In January 2022, the Fed released a highly anticipated report providing economic context and weighing the benefits and risks of CBDCs. This report was described by the Fed as a “first step” in issuing a CBDC. Its purpose was to facilitate a broad discussion of the implications of a CBDC in the United States.

The Fed report, The dollar in the age of digital transformationindicated that a CBDC should:

  • deliver benefits to households, businesses and the broader economy that outweigh costs and risks;
  • produce these benefits more efficiently than alternative methods;
  • complement, rather than replace, current forms of money and methods of delivering financial services;
  • protect consumer privacy; and
  • protect against criminal activity and enjoy broad support from key stakeholders.

The report also states that the Federal Reserve will not proceed with issuing a CBDC unless it obtains clear support from Congress, “ideally in the form of specific enabling legislation.”

How many countries have launched a central bank digital currency?

Nine countries have fully launched a central bank digital currency (CBDC). Eight of the nine countries are located in the Caribbean. Nigeria and its e-Naira have become the latest country to institute a CBDC. It is the first country in Africa to create a CBDC.

Will the United States Create a Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)?

The United States does not have established plans to create a CBDC, but the Federal Reserve released a report in January 2022 that invited public comment and assessed the potential risks and benefits of a US CBDC. In March 2022, President Biden issued an executive order directing Congress to “assess the technology infrastructure and capacity needs of a potential U.S. CBDC.”

Has Russia launched a central bank digital currency (CBDC)?

In December 2021, the Bank of Russia announced that a prototype of the digital ruble was completed. Russia’s central bank has reported that a number of test transactions using the digital ruble have been successful. 12 Russian banks have agreed to issue the digital ruble in partnership with the Central Bank of Russia.

The essential

A total of nine countries have already launched CBDCs, eight of which are located in the Caribbean. Nigeria, which launched the e-Naira in October 2021, is the latest country to issue a CBDC. As cash transactions become increasingly rare and more countries assess the benefits of digital currency, the number of central banks issuing digital fiat will only increase.

For a full list of countries and their CBDC status, visit the Atlantic Council’s CBDC tracker.

High definition subsurface imaging with cosmic ray muons Mon, 14 Feb 2022 16:09:39 +0000
Voice of editors is a blog from the AGU Publications Department.

Many structures, processes, and movements of geophysical materials are hidden in plain sight, so imaging them can be difficult for scientists. A new technique, muography, allows scientists to visualize the internal composition of solid geological structures at high resolution. A book just published in the AGU Geophysical Monograph Series, Muography: Exploring the Earth’s subsoil with elementary particles, explores the application of this technique and how it can be used in conjunction with traditional observation methods. We asked the book editors a few questions about muography, its applications in geophysics, and what readers can expect from their book.

What are muons and what is muography?

Muons are elementary particles similar to electrons, but the mass of a muon is about two hundred times heavier than the mass of an electron. The main source of muons comes from nature. They are continually created as by-products of the showers of particles induced by the collisions of cosmic rays with atmospheric nuclei. Muons travel at a speed close to the speed of light, which makes them able to reach the Earth’s surface due to relativistic effects, despite the short decay time.

Muons are observed all over our planet (about one muon penetrates through a hand-sized surface every second). Muons are more penetrating than electrons due to their greater mass, and the most energetic muons can reach even a few kilometers into the Earth’s subsoil.

Muography is an imaging technique for visualizing the internal density composition of geological structures and man-made objects.

Muography is an imaging technique for visualizing the internal density composition of geological structures and man-made objects. It’s similar to X-ray radiography in the human body: muons lose energy in all sorts of media and are absorbed if the energy runs out. The energy loss of the muons depends on the integrated mass of the medium; thus, the yield of muons having penetrated a given medium will provide information on the density of the object crossed.

An example of subsurface muographic surveying from underground tunnels: the difference between geodetically and muographically measured rock thicknesses locating a region of low density (red spot) above the tunnel. Credit: Gergely Suranyi

How can muography be used in earth science research?

Muography produces “x-ray” images of the earth’s subsoil to reveal the density structure of deeper regions with an accuracy of a few meters. This technique can be used to monitor the movement of materials in geological structures and hydrological systems, as well as to improve our understanding of geophysical phenomena.

One of the main applications of muography to date has been the study of various phenomena inside volcanoes (such as the degassing process, the dynamics of eruptions, the formation of magmatic plugs and hydrothermal activities) and monitoring of volcanic edifices (eg deposition of volcanic ejecta and tectonic changes).

Besides volcanology, shallow subsurface muography has the potential to improve our understanding of climate change-induced processes in the cryosphere, reveal evidence of past natural disasters, enable sustainable exploration of hidden subsurface resources , improve geological engineering techniques, and much more. .

Cross-sectional views of the bedrock topography of the Eiger glacier reconstructed using muography. Blue lines and light blue bands are best-fit lines and 1 sigma errors, respectively. 1 credit

Besides stand-alone muography experiments, muography can also be used as a complementary monitoring technique; for example, it is possible to perform a joint analysis of muographic and gravity data for high-resolution three-dimensional density imaging of the subsoil.

What are the advantages of using muography over other imaging techniques?

Modular large-area muon tracker that can be used for earth muography of kilometer buildings. Credit: Laszlo Olah (DC BY 4.0)

Because it uses natural background radiation, muography offers passive, non-destructive imaging of the earth’s subsoil.

The high penetrating power of muons and the predictability of their trajectories in matter allow the imaging of kilometric objects with a spatial resolution of a few meters. With conventional geophysical techniques, large-scale and dense sensor networks are required to achieve this level of resolution.

The high-resolution imaging capability also has practical advantages such as observing inaccessible or dangerous geological phenomena from a safe distance.

What are the limits of muography?

Portable muographic observation device used in underground site to explore shallow subsoil. Credit: Richard Kovacs

Since cosmic muons only come from the sky, the angle of view for muographic imaging is limited. Users should install observation instruments at lower elevations than the targeted structures (such as in tunnels or boreholes) to explore the overburden structure.

Another limitation is that natural muons have a finite yield. Muographic scanning of thick objects requires careful design of the measurement setup (eg, optimization of detector size, imaging resolution, exposure time) to compensate.

How have muographic observation instruments evolved over the last decade and how have these advances impacted muographic practices?

Over the past decade, we have seen substantial advances in instrumentation. Different groups have successfully developed application-oriented instruments and have carried out joint muographic surveys at various sites to verify different technologies and demonstrate their applicability, such as in the Egyptian pyramids, in nuclear reactors and around volcanic edifices.

Recently, compact detectors based on innovative technologies have provided fair image resolution, operational reliability and efficiency in harsh and varied environments. Advances in technology development have made instrumentation more user-friendly and have expanded the applicability of this technique. For example, muography has recently been used for hydrosphere monitoring.

What are some of the unresolved questions in this area that require further research, data collection or modeling?

High-definition muography should contribute significantly to the efficient exploration of the earth’s subsoil resources and the permanent monitoring of infrastructures. Muography also has the potential to contribute to the assessment of direct and indirect natural hazards. Joint measures with other techniques are strongly desired for a successful social implementation of muography.

Strengthening cooperation between developers and potential users from academia (such as researchers, teachers and students) and the private sector (such as engineers and project managers) will be necessary to make muography a standardized technique – such as x-rays. radiography – with optimized and compact devices running user-friendly interfaces for various applications.

The aim of our book is to provide topical information to improve cooperation between developers and users as it is the key to finding an ever-widening range of applications for muography and to solving important problems in years to come.

Muography: Exploring the Earth’s subsoil with elementary particles, 2022. ISBN: 978-1-119-72302-8. List price: $199.95 (hardcover), $160 (e-book)

—László Oláh (, 0000-0002-4300-8331), University of Tokyo, Japan; Hiroyuki KM Tanaka ( 0000-0002-3816-1630), University of Tokyo, Japan; and Dezso Varga ( 0000-0002-2450-1331), Wigner Research Center for Physics, Hungary

Editor’s Note: It is AGU Publications’ policy to invite authors or editors of newly published books to write an abstract for Eos Editors’ Vox.

Quote: Oláh, L., HKM Tanaka and D. Varga (2022), High-definition subsurface imaging with cosmic-ray muons, Eos, 103, Published February 14, 2022.
This article does not represent the opinion of AGU, Eos, or any of its affiliates. This is the author’s opinion only.
Caltech files for permission to demolish the building and replace it with a new one – Pasadena Now Mon, 17 Jan 2022 19:50:00 +0000

Caltech wants to demolish a one-story building on its campus at 1200 E. California Blvd. and build a new, three-story, 80,000 square foot university lab building in the same location, and is applying for a conditional use permit (CUP) from the city to make it happen.

The proposed project would deviate from the identified building setback, rooftop accessory area, and accessory height specified in the approved campus master plan. The project also involves moving a protected tree on campus.

Under city zoning regulations, a CUP is required for minor alterations that may conflict with an approved master plan.

According to plans submitted to the Department of Planning and Community Development as part of the application, the location of the proposed project is on the east side of Wilson Avenue, just north of the San Pasqual Street intersection. This plot is approximately 18 acres in size and is being developed as part of the Caltech campus.

Caltech said the new building will be called the Resnick Sustainability Center when complete and is intended to be a modern, flexible research building capable of supporting and expanding the research work of the Resnick Sustainability Institute (RSI) .

It will initially house the facilities of four of RSI’s research centers: a biosphere ecology and engineering facility, a solar science and catalysis center, a remote sensing center and a translational science facility for pilot testing. in large scale.

Caltech said the project is currently in the design development phase. Construction is expected to begin in early 2022 with occupancy expected in 2024.

The institute’s first master plan was approved in 1989. A first amendment was approved in 1995 and a second in 1999. The current master plan is the third and was approved by the Pasadena City Council in December 2006 without duration does not specify an expiry date, which means that it is in effect indefinitely.

With certain conditions for approval, the planning department said it recommends the CUP application be approved by the Hearing Officer before forwarding it to city council.

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Why air pollution is the greatest danger to public health in the world Wed, 29 Dec 2021 08:00:00 +0000

One of the greatest plagues of our time is air pollution, due not only to its impact on climate change but also on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality rates. . Many pollutants have become major contributors to disease in humans. Among them are particles (PM), particles of varying diameter but very small that enter the respiratory system by inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer.

Although ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, PM is harmful when present in high concentrations at ground level. In addition, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are all considered to be air pollutants harmful to humans.

Carbon monoxide can even cause direct poisoning when consumed at high levels. Heavy metals such as lead, when absorbed into the human body, can lead to direct poisoning or chronic poisoning, depending on exposure. The diseases caused by the above mentioned substances mainly include respiratory problems such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, cardiovascular events, central nervous system dysfunctions and skin diseases.

Air pollution not only has an impact on climate change, but also on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality rates.

Last but not least, climate change resulting from environmental pollution affects the geographic distribution of many infectious diseases, as do natural disasters. The only way to tackle this problem is public awareness coupled with a multidisciplinary approach by scientific experts; national and international organizations must face up to the urgency of this threat and propose lasting solutions.

Approach to the problem

The interactions between humans and their physical environment have been widely studied, as multiple human activities influence the environment. The environment is a coupling of the biotic (living organisms and microorganisms) and the abiotic (hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere).

Pollution is defined as the introduction of substances harmful to humans and other living organisms into the environment. Pollutants are noxious solids, liquids or gases produced in higher concentrations than usual that reduce the quality of our environment.

Human activities take a toll on the environment by polluting the water we drink, the air we breathe and the soil in which plants grow. While the industrial revolution was a great success in terms of technology, society and multiple service delivery, it also introduced the production of huge amounts of pollutants emitted into the air which are harmful to human health.

Girl wearing a mask to protect herself from Covid-19
Air pollution account for about nine million deaths per year. | Image credit: Sanchit Khanna / Hindustan Times via Getty Images

Without a doubt, global environmental pollution is seen as a multifaceted international public health problem. Social, economic and legislative concerns and lifestyle are linked to this major problem. It is clear that urbanization and industrialization are reaching unprecedented and overwhelming proportions in the world in our time. Human-caused air pollution is one of the greatest risks to public health in the world, given that it account for about nine million deaths per year.

Sources of air pollution

It is known that the majority of environmental pollutants are emitted by large-scale human activities such as the use of industrial machines, power plants, combustion engines and cars. Because these activities are carried out on such a large scale, they are by far the biggest contributors to air pollution, with cars responsible for around 80% of pollution today.

Other human activities also influence our environment to a lesser extent. These activities include field cultivation techniques, gas stations, fuel tank heaters, and clean-up procedures, as well as several natural sources, such as volcanic eruptions, soil eruptions, and forest fires. The classification of air pollutants is based primarily on the sources of pollution. Therefore, it is worth mentioning the four main sources, according to the classification system: main sources, area sources, mobile sources and natural sources.

The main sources include emissions of pollutants from power plants, refineries and petrochemicals, chemical and fertilizer industries, metallurgical and other industrial plants and, finally, municipal incineration.

Indoor sources include household cleaning operations, dry cleaners, printing houses and gas stations.

environmental pollution

Mobile sources include automobiles, cars, railways, airways, and other types of vehicles.

Finally, natural sources include, as noted earlier, physical disasters such as forest fires, volcanic erosion, dust storms, and farm fires.

However, many classification systems have been proposed. Another type of classification is a grouping according to the recipient of the pollution, as follows:

Air pollution is determined as the presence of pollutants in the air in large quantities for long periods of time. Air pollutants are dispersed particles, hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO3, etc.

Air pollutants

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports six major air pollutants, namely particulate matter pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and lead. Air pollution can have a disastrous effect on all components of the environment, including groundwater, soil and air. In addition, it poses a serious threat to living organisms.

In this vein, our interest is mainly to focus on these pollutants, as they are linked to wider and more serious problems in terms of impact on human health and the environment. Acid rain, global warming, the greenhouse effect and climate change have a significant ecological impact on air pollution.

Krishna’s Day Becomes An Atmosphere of Devotion | Ludhiana News Sun, 19 Dec 2021 22:56:00 +0000

Ludhiana: The Krishna-Balram Rath Yatra was held on a large scale on Sunday and worshipers were full of enthusiasm throughout the course, which was decorated by various sponsors.
However, the Covid-19 protocol was ignored, as large numbers of people gathered in one place and a large majority of them were without face masks. The organizers said they had offered masks and disinfectants to the faithful of the march, but could not find any takers. “We cannot force anyone to wear the mask,” said an organizer.
The decorated chariot began its journey from Durga Mata Mandir, carrying the idols of Lord Jagannath (Krishna), his brother, Balaram, and his sister, Subhadra. The float headed for Nav Durga Mandir after crossing the Stadium Road, Chowk Fountain, Ghumar Mandi Road and Ferozepur Road, with devotees lined up to receive the procession and get a glimpse of the Lord.
The rath yatra had several attractions for the devotees, as the priests of Haridwar performed the Maha Aarti in the same way as the Ganga Aarti for the sacred river. At the stalls, people were offered edibles. “This is the only time the Lord Himself comes out of the temple to shower His blessings on the devotees, so how can the devotees stay at home,” said Pankaj, one of the devotees, who said that participating in this procession had always been a great experience for him.
The procession created some difficulties for commuters as the route from Old Session Chowk to Fountain Chowk, from Bharat Nagar Chowk to Fountain Chowk and from Aarti Chowk to gate number 2 of PAU remained blocked. In some places, the police had to erect barricades to separate the procession from normal traffic. The entire road to Ghumar Mandi was closed to traffic.
Channi declares Rath Yatra “state festival”
Signaling the rath yatra, the Chief Minister of Punjab, Charanjit Singh Channi, declared it a “state festival” and announced a donation of 2.51 crore rupees for the Iskcon temple in Ludhiana.
Addressing the rally near Shri Durga Mata Mandir, Channi said he had high regard for Srimad Bhagvadgita, and that when he became a city councilor about 25 years ago, a noble soul advised him to recite one shloka per day of this holy test for inner peace. He said, “The holy book has given direction to my life. Young people should soak up the teachings of the Gita and practice them. Drinking just one shloka was enough to be successful in life.
He said the government of Punjab was developing a Gita and Ramayana research center on 20 acres in Patiala, as these religious texts were a great source of inspiration for people. He said: “Scholars will draw their wisdom from the epic texts of Ramayana, Mahabharata and Srimad Bhagvadgita to deepen our knowledge. “


When two plates slide on top of each other Sun, 19 Dec 2021 08:00:00 +0000

Through Robert Hazen, Ph.D., George Mason University

Tectonic plates are large chunks of the lithosphere – about 50 or 100 kilometers thick, but thousands of kilometers in diameter – and lithospheric plates are displaced when they straddle the asthenosphere, which is mobile and moving. Transformation boundaries are a kind of plate boundary. They are basically faults where two plates slide over each other.

An image of the San Andreas Fault in Hanford, USA
The San Andreas Fault is the longest highly active transformational frontier on the Earth’s surface. (Image: oliverdelahayeShutterstock)

The Lithosphere and the Asthenosphere

The lithosphere and asthenosphere are the two major layers associated with plate tectonics.

The lithosphere consists of the crust and the upper part of the mantle; it is a relatively thin layer, about 50 to 100 kilometers thick. It is also relatively cold, less than 1000 degrees centigrade, and at these temperatures the rock is brittle. That is, if you take a hammer and hit it, it will break; it will shatter, like a brittle piece of ceramic. This solid rock layer is the lithosphere.

It covers a softer layer, the asthenosphere soft and warm. This layer of asthenosphere extends deep into the mantle. It’s hotter – temperatures are usually over 1000 degrees – and it’s hot enough to make the rock relatively soft and plastic; more like a taffy.

This is a transcript of the video series The joy of science. Watch it now, on Wondrium.

Transform the boundaries

Transformation limits are faults where two plates slide over each other. Such boundaries are inevitable whenever you have a sphere divided into diverging and converging boundaries. The most common is the San Andreas fault; it is the longest highly active transformation frontier on the Earth’s surface.

Major earthquakes occur along the San Andreas fault every few decades. Geologists predict that another severe earthquake is to occur in Southern California in the next quarter century or so; stress builds up too much.

There are also transformation limits along ocean ridge systems.

Transformation limit locations

If you look at a seabed map, you will see that the ridges are shifted from time to time; and these offsets are transformation limits of a shorter kind. They involve areas where the plaques meet; they move relative to each other, but they neither diverge nor converge.

Geologists have also identified several silent transformation boundaries, those that do not move. The plates meet, they are in contact; but at least for now, they don’t move much. There is such a passive border between the Eurasian plate and the African plate. At some point in the future these boundaries may move, there may be giant earthquakes along them; but at least for now they seem to be calm.

Learn more about the rock cycle.

Volcanic areas called hot spots

An image of the Hawaii hotspot.
There are around 100 hot spots around the world. (Image: Bourrichon / Public domain)

Large-scale mantle convection drives plate tectonics and controls most of Earth’s volcanoes. You have volcanoes at divergent borders, where a new crust is formed, and therefore you have a ridge of volcanoes. You have volcanoes along converging borders that are about 100 to 200 kilometers inland from the actual border.

But there are other well-known volcanic areas, including Hawaii and Yellowstone, which lie in the middle of the plates. What is happening with these volcanoes? These areas are called hot spots. They are found all over the world; there are about 100 of them in the world, and they represent another type of mantle convection, which is still quite poorly understood.

Appearance of a hot spot

Hot spots appear to appear when a narrow plume of magma rises from the depths of the mantle. Perhaps the core-mantle boundary is the source of these hot spots; it would be 3,000 kilometers lower. The location of the hot spots seems to be absolutely independent of the tectonic movements of the plates.

For example, if you look at the Hawaii mountain range, you see that the mountain range appears to have moved northwest. The reason is that the plate itself moves and the hot spot remains fixed. You have a fixed hot spot; As the plate gradually moves, the new volcanic islands that are forming appear more and more to the southeast, in this chain of islands.

Learn more about earthquakes and volcanoes.

The fixed hot spot

If you look at the volcanic islands, the present-day Big Island of Hawaii, where active volcanism occurs, is the largest; this is where all the action takes place. As you move further away from Hawaii, you see more and more eroded islands. If you study sonar even further, there is a huge string of volcanic islands underwater; that is, things that were once islands, but are now eroded below ocean level.

It stretches hundreds of kilometers to the northwest. This indicates that the hot spot has been fixed for a long time and the Pacific plate has moved on it.

There is still a lot to understand about hot spots, and their origin remains a hot topic of research.

Common questions about processing limits and hot spots

Q: What are processing limits?

Transform the boundaries are faults where two plates slide against each other. Such borders are inevitable due to divergent and converging borders. The most common transformation boundary is the San Andreas fault; it is the longest highly active transformation frontier on the Earth’s surface.

Q: What are the limits of silent transformation?

Silent transformation limits are borders that do not move. The plates are in contact at these limits but do not move much at this time. Geologists have found passive transformational boundaries between the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate.

Q: What are hot spots? How do they arise?

Hot spots are volcanic areas that lie right in the middle of the plates. They seem to arise when a narrow plume of magma rises from the depths of the mantle. The location of the hot spots seems to be absolutely independent of the tectonic movements of the plates.

Keep reading
Volcanic eruptions: dramatic and violent events on the Earth’s surface
The internal structure of the Earth and seismic waves
Understanding plate tectonics and its importance on Earth

November 2021: heard in outer space Fri, 03 Dec 2021 14:26:00 +0000

Starlog 20983.XXI.B.332.41.C More than 4,500 extraterrestrial vessels recorded around Saturn, chatter captured, decryption …

So, son, now you will understand why I brought you here on Cosmic Tours for your tenth birthday. Now what you are going to see and hear will make you laugh but it is not funny, not at all, especially if this species comes out of here and infects the Universe. It’s not a comedy, it’s a warning.

What do you mean, daddy?

Now, look here at this screen. It’s that tiny point over there, the third planet from this Sun, T2331.87243.1009.256, the Planet is called Earth in their most spoken language, translated to a similar concept in others. Earth means “mud”.

Son laughs. So what’s so special about it, dad? Their Sun is small, isn’t it? What is all this around their planet?

This is called space waste. The place is polluted from the bottom of the oceans to rivers to the earth itself and to space

Son bursts out laughing. Why?

Well, they even dumped toxic chemicals in the sea and dropped biological weapons there, out of sight, out of mind. They buried viruses in the polar ice, which is melting. They dump plastic in rivers and sewers, and there is now almost as much plastic as there is fish.

Son stop laughing. So what about their balance with their biosphere?

Yes, they call it nature. Well, they don’t. Their approach is to consume the resources without replacing them, to invade the forests and cut them down without replanting them, to slaughter the animals, to destroy the vegetation and they do it on a large scale, so the planet and its resources are not sustainable. In many countries, more than a quarter of species are now threatened with extinction and they destroy species that could be useful to them before they discover them and their qualities.

Yes dad but if they don’t know better why don’t we teach them?

Oh they know very well what they are doing. They have scientists, good scientists, and a lot of people are determined to protect the environment, animals, etc., but the planet is dominated by powerful economic groups called Lobbies. A journalist over there calls them the BARFFED (Banks, Arms, Finances, Food, Energy, Drugs). These filter the information available by controlling their media.

How do they do this?

Well, the media is funded by something they call advertising, it’s paid advertising for individuals and businesses, they pay the media to advertise them or their products, and they do it through the agency bias. It is these agencies that decide whether a medium thrives or fails and they do so by controlling access to advertising money based on the content of the medium. If they don’t agree, they turn off the tap.

The microphone crackles. Spaceship 2B.13.4572.C12 Please inform your son about the socio-economic vectors that govern this human species. I’m sharing your mic with educational units on the D34.619.V282 band.

OK Check. Yes, son. Hello everybody. So let’s start at the beginning. To begin with, not all children have the same rights (gasps heard in every spaceship). So the way it works is like this. The administration of the planet is based on invisible lines called “countries”. These have been developed in many cases by powers of the continent they call “Europe” who have invaded other territories around the planet by setting up governments favorable to their objectives (siphoning of their resources). Those who oppose it, often defenseless or armed with shields and spears, are slaughtered with machine guns. This violence escalated, to the point where one nation, a powerful one, used two atomic explosive devices on towns full of civilians, including babies and family pets, and the same nation strafed children in screaming with napalm, burning their skin and calling them “legitimate targets”.

Hiccups of widespread horror.

Thus, people living in these “countries” have different rights. If you were born on one side of the line, called a “border” or “border,” you have certain rights. If you were born an inch across the line, you may be classified as an outcast.


And the identity of a “country” is formed by what is called a “flag”. It’s a piece of material with symbols, often crosses or stars and lines and when they lift it everyone stops and they sing this stupid song called “national anthem”, each one with a different music and some of them with belligerent words, referring to the murder of other glorious people, hands over their hearts, a stupid expression of their faces, looking at the fucking sky, sorry. I … I can’t … BWAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA! (he collapses laughing helplessly)

The whole fleet explodes with a hoarse laugh.

Question: Sorry to interrupt you, Mr. Speaker. But then, murdering another person is illegal!

No problem, you can all ask questions whenever you want. Murder is illegal. Yes. Unless it is done by a country with the permission of the government, they call it a “war”, then they can murder as many people as they want, including children, and it is not illegal.

Question: So could I say that for them, the more people you murder, the more legal it is?

Yeah, something like that. Let’s move on to education… depending on the “country” in which they were born, and sometimes depending on their gender, they receive different levels of education and have access to it depending on their place of birth and their gender.

Question: Does this mean that some of them finish their education phase better prepared than others, depending on the accident of birth and their sex?

Yes correct.

Troubles detected in all spacecraft.

Now, higher education after the second phase is as a rule paid in most countries, which means that if you can afford it, your child is in third phase education, which they call university.

Question: But how can it be called University if it is not universal?

One of the many puzzles on this planet, young citizen. And it can be very expensive, sometimes as much as a house. And how does it work ? Housing is not universally available and free. It used to be in some social systems, in which education, housing, public services, transport, leisure activities, medical care, including dental care were free, even the distribution of food, but this system was destroyed by the so-called BARFFED who today continues to spend a lot of energy to ensure that this model is no longer adopted, it cost them a lot of money, you see.

Depending on the location, a house costs money. In the cities, a lot of money, less in the countryside, but then they have a problem, how to get to work because although they have the technological means to work remotely, many refuse to adopt it.

general bursts of laughter,

So people have to apply to a bank for a loan, which they call a mortgage. Banks often only lend 70 or 80 percent of the loan, which means the buyer has to find tens of thousands of what they call dollars to make an upfront payment.

Question: How can they do it if they are starting their professional life?

Another enigma, young citizen. And another is health. Public health systems are under attack today by private insurance companies who want people to pay for their health care, which …

Interrupted by a deafening roar of sustained laughter

…. which means if you have money you survive, if you don’t have money then you will die. Let’s take as an example their latest vaccination program against a pandemic virus called Covid-19, let’s actually see their whole approach. Now sit down, you’re not going to believe it.

First, there is an alert for an unidentified virus. They believe it is from a lab in a country they call China, which was investigating bat coronaviruses.

Question: But the coronavirus is easy to cure!

Yes but they are not there yet, they still do not understand the transmission mechanism and they have no idea of ​​a holistic biological approach to infections / reactions, no idea at all, they are three centuries away from their time this. Anyway they are therefore developing several vaccines which give them some protection but only some countries have high vaccination rates, for example they have one at 90 percent, called Portugal, others richer than Portugal but where people refuse to be vaccinated …

General laughter

… and others with vaccination rates below 20 percent, so they’re going around in circles. New variants appear all the time and there are cases of people being fully vaccinated and catching the same disease twice (probably the vaccination saved their life).

Hoarse and sustained laughter, clicks on the consoles heard.

Question: Again, whether or not they get sick or protected depends on which side of an invisible line they are drawn and what stupid song they sing?

Mayhem in space as everyone laughs out loud.

Guys, who has to pay to go on a comedy show when we have Planet Earth 2021 to tune in to?

Check: time is up! It’s time to head back to base, there is another fleet waiting to see this monster show.

Lively discussions accompanied by sustained laughter as space travelers return to base

Timothy Bancroft-Hinchey can be contacted at

]]> 10 hot topics on ecology for the new generation Sat, 27 Nov 2021 18:44:16 +0000

In more ways than one, the process of studying ecology began with the birth of the first humans. However, the process of doing so now continues to develop and evolve as we continue to apply technology to the execution of our ideas.

Ecology is a structure that shows the levels of interdependence between organisms and their physical space. But, due to the abundance and volume of life on earth, ecology is classified and studied in different segments. Some of the most studied segments are organisms, biosphere, people, community and ecosystem.

Even most of the new emerging topics also tend to be classified and covered by these major segments of ecology. In this article, we will discuss some areas and topics in ecology that are likely to receive more attention in the future. But because future generations will depend on technology a lot more, we will cover the topic with a focus on the technological aspects.

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In no particular order, here are 10 hot topics on ecology for the new generation.

1) The use of bio-batteries

Bio-batteries are devices that use organic compounds and natural substances to provide energy. The principle of these devices is similar to those used by most animals and plants to produce energy. The process involves the use of metabolic reactions to convert energy from organic compounds like glucose.

2) Low-power computers

Low-power computers are computers that consume less electricity and energy than conventional computers. Low consumption products are strategically designed with low consumption circuits and intelligent technological components. These devices can help the planet by consuming fewer resources while maintaining outputs.

Students can use their low-power computers not only to protect the environment, but also to fulfill a variety of other purposes. For example, you can use your low-power computers to access various student services and help your academics.

You just have to find good platforms and take advantage of some of their most popular services, like doing my homework online for me or helping with math homework. But students should always be aware of selecting the right platforms and the right experts before finalizing their services. And yes, it’s true – a good technological machine can certainly help many people to do their jobs better and easier!

3) GPS tracking

The evolution and widespread use of GPS technology has helped make life easier for people around the world. But, as it is, GPS technology can also be used for the good of nature. For example, today scientists can track animals in nature down to a centimeter using GSP technology.

4) Soil conservation

Believe it or not, the present and the future are driving more and more people to conserve and protect soils. This is because soil is not only home to the majority of life on Earth, but is also most affected when damage and neglect increases. Several experts around the world have already started practicing various futuristic conservation methods. Healthier soil helps grow better food, provides cleaner water, purifies the air, and more.

5) Carbon conversation technology

Today, it is a known fact that increasing levels of carbon emissions are harmful to the environment. But the future is not only to reduce daily emissions, but also to reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. There is also increased interest in this area due to the growing number of climate activists like Greta Thunberg. So the carbon conversation is one of the hottest environmental topics today and tomorrow.

6) Water conservation

Water conservation can be defined as the set of activities and processes undertaken to protect the hydrosphere of the planet. This is an area of ​​always important and continuing interest, as clean, fresh water is vital for all life on Earth. The future of water conservation lies in the use of technology to reduce daily and total pollution of the oceans. Most practices will continue to occur in all segments, at the household and industry levels.

7) ICARUS – The use of satellite technology

The International Cooperation for Animal Research Using Space is an initiative to improve the lives of animals. It is used to observe global migratory movements and track various types of animals. Today, ICARUS is one of the most advanced programs that uses satellite technology to help wildlife. And there is a lot of potential to improve the involvement and reach of such programs because of their large-scale benefits.

8) Sensor technology

Sensor technology has found its way into several modern devices that use the technology to power their functions. Sensor technology can be used to track animals, assess their vital health parameters and more. Several mini and micro sensors can also be used to record, measure and analyze various other forms of relevant data. This area will certainly be much more studied and used in order to improve its functions and purposes.

9) 3D printing technology

The technology exists and has helped many people create tools with much greater ease and precision. This technology can be used to create just about anything imaginable. The only requirements are the availability of materials and the know-how of the machine. 3D printing can lighten the burden on the environment while creating various beneficial products.

10) Big Data & Analytics

In today’s digital age of advanced technology and information, data can be found in abundance anytime, anywhere. Most industries use technology to perform their functions easier and more efficiently. However, today’s technology can also learn by studying data and models while being used. This study of the data and their analyzes can then be used to further improve day-to-day and long-term functions and practices.

Here are some more environmentally friendly topics that will most likely be discussed and studied in the future –

  • Thematic Landsat
  • Autonomous vehicles
  • Modern population control measures
  • Light and sonar technology
  • Restoration of coral reefs
  • DNA sequencing and genetic testing
  • Solar energy
  • Bioinformatics

The bottom line

With all of the above discussion and study topics in mind, one can easily quench one’s thirst for interest and research in ecology. But students are also advised to stay tuned for new innovations and inventions in the field. This is because most of the practices today are technology based and will also change as the associated technology evolves. To begin with, one can focus more on nature while tapping into credible resources for knowledge.

Jacobs Engineering: Understanding the Main Findings of the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report Thu, 25 Nov 2021 08:30:31 +0000

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has started publishing its Sixth Assessment Report (AR6)on the drivers and potential impacts of climate change and the ways in which human societies may respond. The report highlights the scale of the challenge we face in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating the worst effects of climate change on people and the planet.

Jacobs Global Technology Leader Resilience and Climate Change Craig Clifton and Global Technology Leader Resilience and Climate Change Tapash Das put together the main findings of the report.

Download PDF documentor continue reading below.

[H2] Climate change 2021: the basis of the physical sciences

Climate Change 2021: The Basis of Physical Science (The Report) is the main outcome of the IPCC Working Group I (WGI). It provides a contemporary understanding of the current state of the climate, how it is changing, how it can continue to change over shorter and longer time scales, and the influence of human activity in driving that change. This is the first main report of the AR6 cycle and will be followed in 2021 and 2022 by contributions from Working Group II on Climate Change Impacts, Adaptations and Vulnerabilities and Working Group III on Options to Mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and climate change.

[H3] Human influence on the climate system

The report builds on WGI’s contributions to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), published in 2013 and several IPCC Special Reports published in 2018-19. Its results are generally consistent with AR5. Notably, he claims that the increase in carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere during the industrial age is the result of human activities. He concludes that human influence is the main driver of an increase in the global average surface temperature of nearly 1.1 ° C since the start of the industrial era and many other changes observed in the atmosphere, the ocean, the cryosphere and the biosphere.

[H3] The future

Climate modeling is based on five shared socio-economic trajectory (SSP) scenarios that describe five alternative trajectories for future greenhouse gas emissions. Two of these scenarios – SSP1-1.9 and SSP1-2.6 – anticipate rapid decarbonization, leading to net removals of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere during the second half of the Century. These contrast with SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5 which anticipate continued growth in emissions until at least the latter part of this century.

What is clear in the report is that our chance to limit the increase in global average temperature to 1.5 ° C above pre-industrial levels (the most ambitious goal of the Paris Agreement by parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) now appears small. In all SSP scenarios, the best estimate is that the 1.5 ° C threshold will be exceeded within the next 20 years. Only in the two most aggressive decarbonization scenarios is it likely that global warming will remain below the 2 ° C threshold for dangerous human interference in the global climate system. In both high emission growth scenarios, global temperatures could rise more than 4 ° C above pre-industrial levels by the end of this century.

The projected effects of this warming of the global climate system are considerable:

  • The frequency and intensity of extreme temperatures and marine heat waves will increase.
  • Episodes of heavy precipitation will intensify, with further increases in precipitation in most monsoon regions and at high latitudes of the northern hemisphere.
  • Agricultural and ecological droughts will be more severe.
  • The proportion of intense tropical cyclones will continue to increase.
  • Reductions in Arctic sea ice, snow cover and permafrost will accelerate.

These climate changes will be directly proportional to the extent of global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. The warming itself will be much faster in some areas, especially at the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere.

While some changes in the climate system can be reversed if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced on a large scale across the world, other changes in oceans, ice caps and sea levels are effectively blocked. . Mountain and polar glaciers will continue to melt for decades or centuries. The thaw of the permafrost seems irreversible on a centennial scale. Ice loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice caps will continue, at least into this century.

These, combined with the continued warming of the oceans, mean sea levels will continue to rise for centuries, if not millennia. This could reach 1 meter by 2100, but a sea level rise approaching 2 meters by 2100 and 5 meters by 2150 cannot be ruled out (although it is considered unlikely).

The implications of these changes for human society, food production, water resources and natural systems will be discussed in the next IPCC WGII ​​report.

[H3] And now ?

Limiting human-induced warming to the Paris agreement target of 1.5 ° C requires that cumulative carbon dioxide emissions be limited quickly and carbon dioxide emissions reduced to at least zero net. Significant reductions in emissions of other greenhouse gases are also needed.

The WGI report included two important notes on removing carbon from the atmosphere. The first is that carbon dioxide emissions are more effective at raising temperature than removals of carbon from the atmosphere are at lowering it. The second is that carbon dioxide removal methods can have far-reaching and potentially unforeseen adverse effects on biogeochemical cycles and the climate. The implications of these two conclusions are that urgent reductions in emissions, in line with and perhaps even more ambitious than what nations have already committed to under the Paris Agreement, are necessary for efficiency and for sustainability. reduce the impacts of human interference on the global climate system.

[H3] How can Jacobs help you?

The IPCC AR6 WGI report highlights the need for urgent action on two fronts: first, the need for human society and economies to decarbonise rapidly, and second, the need to build resilience in all kinds of human systems. and natural. As a global team of specialists, we can help cities, infrastructure providers, utilities and communities address the challenge of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change on both fronts.

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UW research suggests more complicated connection between plankton and clouds than originally thought The Badger Herald Thu, 18 Nov 2021 16:02:00 +0000

While humans bear much of the responsibility for climate change, one entity much smaller than humans has more impact on the environmental crisis than most realize – marine plankton.

For years, scientists have understood that plankton has an impact on cloud formation. According to a item of Daily science, marine plankton are microscopic organisms which, in any given year, produce 20 million tonnes of sulfur through their respiration. The specific form of sulfur that is released into the air is called dimethyl sulfide, or DMS.

Previous research studies have shown that the release of this sulfur into the atmosphere provides a basis for cloud formation. But groundbreaking research at the University of Wisconsin has found that these previous studies may not give the complete picture.

This new search suggests that most of the DMS emitted into the air does not strictly allow the formation of new clouds, as the majority goes to pre-existing clouds, changing the fundamental understanding of the role of these tiny organisms.

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The UW study suggests that the process of cloud formation, which was previously thought of as a simple, linear cycle, is a more complicated process that may not be as straightforward as previously thought.

Tim Bertram, professor of chemistry at UW and principal investigator of the study, worked with others to learn more about the process of cloud formation and marine plankton.

“We have known for a long time, as a scientific community, that plankton on the ocean surface creates reduced sulfur compounds, and one of them is this dimethyl sulfide molecule,” Bertram said. “It’s responsible for a lot of things, including the smell of the sea. For this reason, there has been a long-standing interest in what happens to this molecule when it is centered on the ocean surface.

The Daily science The article explains that DMS does not go directly from marine plankton into the atmosphere. Instead, the sulfur released by the plankton first turns into a molecule called HPMTF.

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Ultimately, the loss of DMS results in a lower rate of cloud formation because the majority of it goes into clouds that already exist in the atmosphere. The implications of this have the potential to be large-scale – affecting virtually the entire planet, according to the article by Daily science.

a item of The conversation explains the enormous impact of microscopic plankton on the climate of the earth as a whole. Marine plankton help keep temperatures on Earth cooler by allowing clouds to form that reflect sunlight back into space.

Although understanding of the science behind DMS and cloud formation has changed thanks to UW’s research, Bertram said research and findings on the subject are still relatively new.

The direct impact of what this information means on climate change is still largely unknown and an exact conclusion has yet to be drawn – but this is, hopefully, the next step, Bertram said.

“I think the jury’s out on the effects, right, and I certainly don’t want to overestimate our results,” said Bertram. “For me, this is the next question that needs to be addressed. I think that [the] The paper shows that the formation of new particles, and therefore new clouds, will be less given what we have learned in this study.

Gordon Novak, a researcher with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, was a UW graduate student who worked alongside Bertram and helped create the analysis for this study.

Novak said he was always interested in oceanic and atmospheric interactions, and when there were discrepancies in existing knowledge about cloud formation, he decided to jump on the research topic with other scientists who became fascinated with DMS.

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“My research, in general, has focused on gas emissions from the ocean to the atmosphere and their impact on atmospheric chemistry,” Novak said. “Then, along with the folks at NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, they took part in this large-scale aerial search campaign where they flew this DCA plane filled with a bunch of instruments all over the place. the oceans of the world. “

Bertram said the next step is to integrate the chemistry into a climate model to see how important these new findings can be.

Novak and Bertram agree that it is too early to know exactly what evolved chemical understanding means in terms of climate change, but they both agree that there are many unanswered questions for researchers to explore.

While there have been advances in understanding plankton and its role in cloud formation, one thing remains clear: there is still a lot of work to be done, especially when it comes to learning the implications. of these new findings on climate change.