lithosphere | National Geographic Society

the lithosphere is the solid exterior part of the Earth. the lithosphere includes the brittle upper part of the coat and the crustthe outermost layers of Earthits structure. It is bounded by the atmosphere above and the asthenosphere (another part of the upper part coat) below.

Although the rocks of lithosphere are still considered elasticthey are not viscous. the asthenosphere is viscousand the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is the point where geologists and rheologists— scientists who study the flow of matter — make the difference ductility between the two layers of the stem coat. Ductility measures the ability of a solid material to deform or stretch under stress. the lithosphere is much less ductile than asthenosphere.

There are two types of lithosphere: oceanic lithosphere and continental lithosphere. Oceanic lithosphere is associated with oceanic crustand is slightly more dense than continental lithosphere.

Tectonic plates

The most well-known feature associated with Earthit is lithosphere is tectonic activity. Tectonic activity describes the interaction of the huge slabs of lithosphere called tectonic plates.

The lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates including North America, Caribbean, South America, Nova Scotia, Antarctica, Eurasia, Arabia, Africa, India, Philippines , Australia, the Pacific, Juan de Fuca, Cocos and Nazca.

More tectonic activity takes place at the boundaries of these plates, where they can collide, tear or slide against each other. The movement of tectonic plates is made possible by thermal energy (heat) of the coat part of the lithosphere. thermal energy do it rocks of lithosphere After elastic.

Tectonic activity is responsible for some Earthit’s the most dramatic geological events: earthquake, volcanoes, orogeny (Mountain-building), and deep ocean trenches can all be formed by tectonic activity in the lithosphere.

Tectonic activity can shape the lithosphere itself: both oceanic and continental lithospheres are the thinnest rift valleys and ocean ridges, where tectonic plates move away from each other.

How the lithosphere interacts with other spheres

The freshness, brittle lithosphere is just one of the five great “spheres” that shape environment of Earth. The other spheres are biosphere (Earth‘s living beings); the cryosphere (Earthfrozen regions of, including ice and frozen regions floor); the hydrosphere (Earth‘s liquid water); and the atmosphere (the air that surrounds our planet). These spheres interact to influence these diverse elements like the ocean salinity, biodiversityand countryside.

For example, the pedosphere is part of the lithosphere made of floor and dirt. the pedosphere is created by the interaction of lithosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphereand biosphere. Huge, hard rocks of lithosphere can be reduced to powder by the powerful movement of a glacier (cyrosphere). Erosion and erosion caused by wind (atmosphere) or rain (hydrosphere) can also wear out rocks in the lithosphere. the biological Components of biosphereincluding plants and animals remainsmix with these eroded rocks create fertile floor-the pedosphere.

the lithosphere also interacts with atmosphere, hydrosphereand cryosphere influence Temperature differences on Earth. High mountainsfor example, often have temperatures that valleys or Hills. the Mountain range of the lithosphere interacts with the bottom air pressure of atmosphere and the snowy precipitation of hydrosphere to create a cool or even icy atmosphere climatic zone. A region climatic zonein turn, influence adaptations necessary for organizations in the region biosphere.

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