Iisc: the volcanoes of the last mass extinction created the Himalayas | Bangalore News


BENGALURU: Researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) have built models to determine whether volcanism – a magma eruption on the planet’s surface – that caused the last mass extinction 65 million years ago caused erosion of the Indian continental lithosphere. Following the movement of the Indian Plate, they also suggested that such erosion could have created the Himalayan mountain range.
Some hypotheses suggest that a supervolcano (a mantle plume) erupted at around 65 Ma – each Ma or mega-year is one million years – which significantly affected Earth’s climate, resulting in the fifth event d Mass extinction called KT boundary mass extinction which saw reptiles such as dinosaurs being wiped out. “This volcanism occurred just under the then Indian Plate, in a place known as Reunion, now in the southern Indian Ocean. Scientists have suggested that volcanism likely created the Indian Deccan Plateau and affected the dynamics of the Indian Plate in several ways, ”IISc said.
In their new study, Jyotirmoy Paul and Attreyee Ghosh of the Earth Sciences Center (CES) of the IIAS, investigated the interaction between the Indian plate and the Reunion plume using digital models of mantle convection.
The researchers constructed “weather-dependent spherical forward mantle convection models” to determine whether the eruption of the “Réunion plume” could have reduced the thickness of the Indian craton. Their results show that due to the eruption of the Réunion plume, around 130 km of the Indian mainland lithosphere may have been eroded, making it an unusually thin plate compared to other continental plates.
“In addition, the plume material could have lubricated the border between the Indian plate and the underlying mantle. As a result, the Indian plate could slide over the mantle very quickly, reaching the highest speed ever recorded by all the plates (around 20 cm / year) since 65 Ma. Such a fast speed could be a potential reason for the impact. massive between the Indian and Eurasian Plates, ultimately forming the world’s tallest mountain range – the Himalayas, ”the researchers said.

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