Biofera http://biofera.org/ Fri, 11 Jun 2021 22:12:06 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.7.2 https://biofera.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/biofera-icon-150x150.png Biofera http://biofera.org/ 32 32 Despite the pandemic, atmospheric carbon levels hit a new peak https://biofera.org/despite-the-pandemic-atmospheric-carbon-levels-hit-a-new-peak/ https://biofera.org/despite-the-pandemic-atmospheric-carbon-levels-hit-a-new-peak/#respond Fri, 11 Jun 2021 20:14:38 +0000 https://biofera.org/despite-the-pandemic-atmospheric-carbon-levels-hit-a-new-peak/

WASHINGTON (AFP) – An atmospheric research station in Hawaii has recorded its highest concentrations of carbon dioxide since precise measurements began 63 years ago, a government agency said on Monday, adding that the coronavirus pandemic was due to hardly had an impact on the increasing levels of greenhouse gases.

The Mauna Loa Atmospheric Base Observatory readings for May 2021 averaged 419 parts per million (ppm), up from 417 ppm in May 2020, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) said.

The Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California at San Diego also participated in the research.

“We add around 40 billion tonnes of CO2 air pollution per year, ”said Pieter Tans, senior scientist at NOAA’s Global Monitoring Laboratory. “It’s a mountain of carbon that we dig up from Earth, burn, and release into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide – year after year. If we are to avoid catastrophic climate change, the top priority must be to reduce CO emissions2 pollution to zero as soon as possible.

Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas created by humans and persists in the atmosphere and oceans for thousands of years after its emission. It is generated by the combustion of carbon-based fossil fuels used in transportation and power generation, construction, deforestation, agriculture, and other practices. Greenhouse gases trap heat that would otherwise be lost in space into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to global warming.

The increase of 1.8 ppm from May 2020 to May 2021 was slightly lower than in previous years. However, in the first five months of 2021, the average increase was 2.3 ppm, close to the annual increases seen between 2010 and 2019. Although emissions fell 17% at the peak of closures in 2020, this reduction was not important enough to sustain itself. seasonal variations caused by how plants and soil respond to soil temperature, humidity and moisture.

“These natural variations are important, and so far the ‘missing’ emissions from fossil fuel combustion have not stood out,” NOAA said in an explanatory statement.


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National estuary network helps fuel local economies, study finds https://biofera.org/national-estuary-network-helps-fuel-local-economies-study-finds/ https://biofera.org/national-estuary-network-helps-fuel-local-economies-study-finds/#respond Fri, 11 Jun 2021 20:10:54 +0000 https://biofera.org/national-estuary-network-helps-fuel-local-economies-study-finds/

A recently published study, commissioned by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and The Pew Charitable Trusts, offers insight into the important contributions the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS) makes to local economies. Eastern Research Group Inc.’s analysis looked at just four of the system’s 29 reserves – Rookery Bay, Guana Tolomato Matanzas and Apalachicola in Florida and South Slough in Oregon – and conservatively estimated that together they generate over $ 165 million in annual revenues for their communities, including $ 56.4 million in wages paid for at least 1,762 jobs. In short, the study concluded that the work of reserves to build environmental resilience also supports local economic resilience.

The analysis was completed in January and released on March 31 and NOAA will be hosting a webinar on June 14 for reserve managers across the country to discuss the research process and how the results can be applied to make advance the goals of NERRS.

The four study sites educate, train and entertain nearly one million visitors per year, according to the analysis. And the activities that make the reserves popular with the public, including fishing, hunting, wildlife viewing, kayaking, hiking, canoeing, horseback riding, eco-tourism, and educational and vocational training programs. , also largely contribute to their economic contribution.

In addition, the four reserves provide approximately 423,475 acres of critical habitat and nesting or calving areas for a variety of species, including threatened and endangered Atlantic green, loggerhead and leatherback turtles, whales. critically endangered North Atlantic blackbirds, endangered Florida panthers and bald eagles. .

Reserve system works to protect vulnerable estuaries

The surrounding estuaries and wetlands are typically found where rivers meet the sea and form some of the most productive habitats in the world. Congress created NERRS in the early 1970s under the Coastal Zone Management Act, which was designed to use management plans and other tools to protect the country’s vulnerable coastal ecosystems from increased development and residential, recreational, commercial and industrial activities. The reserve system protects more than 1.3 million acres of coastal and Great Lakes estuarine habitat, including areas on the islands of Hawaii and Puerto Rico, and promotes research, monitoring, stewardship , training and education.

NERRS sites are created and managed through a partnership between NOAA and individual states. NOAA provides the bulk of national funding and direction, while the day-to-day management of each reserve is directed by a state agency or university, often assisted by local, regional, or government-wide non-governmental organizations. ‘State.

In fiscal 2021, NOAA, through congressional appropriations, invested more than $ 33 million in the reserve system, with state and academic partners adding $ 9 million. However, federal funding has remained essentially static in recent years, especially when it comes to accounting for inflation, despite increasing demands on NOAA resources and significant state interest in it. establishment of new sites. For example, Connecticut is in the final stages of designating its first reserve, Louisiana has started the process of creating its first site, and Wisconsin is exploring the possibility of a second reserve.

The economic contributions of NERRS could be much greater

Because the study’s methodology and calculations are quite conservative, its assessments “do not include the many economic benefits, such as ecosystem service values, that result from reserves fulfilling their missions. Incorporating these benefits would result in a much higher total economic value, ”the researchers said. Specifically, the report and supporting documents prepared by the National Estuarine Research Reserve Association (NERRA) show that the reserves:

  • Protect economically important assets. For example, the Apalachicola Reserve supports a local fishing industry worth $ 14-16 million per year.
  • Fuel local economies. The Rookery Bay Preserve, for example, attracts more than 285,000 annual visitors, who spend nearly $ 11.5 million in the area each year.
  • Generate income. For example, operating expenses for Oregon’s South Slough NERR, including construction and maintenance of facilities, and salaries paid through 56 jobs directly or indirectly associated with the reserve contribute $ 5.3 million. dollars to the local economy.
  • Create jobs. Spending by visitors to the Rookery Bay Reserve, for example, directly creates 104 jobs and supports at least 408 more, mostly among businesses that offer recreation.

The NERRS is designed to protect and study estuarine ecosystems. The NOAA-Pew study shows that reserves also generate significant economic contributions for surrounding communities. The system is poised to scale up, and given its importance to local economies and ecosystems, the additional public and private sector investments needed to achieve this growth would be money well spent.

Identification of 4 national estuary reserves

The economic contributions that the country’s 29 national estuarine research reserves make to their communities are as diverse as the sites themselves. The economic, operational and environmental characteristics of the four NOAA-Pew study reserves reflect the distinctive cultures and climates of each region.

Apalachicola, Florida

Loggerhead turtles

Loggerhead turtles are one of three endangered turtle species that nest at NERRS sites in Florida, including the Apalachicola Preserve.
Janice Becker
Florida Department of Environmental Protection

The Apalachicola Preserve, which spans Franklin, Gulf and Calhoun counties, is home to many species of freshwater and saltwater fish prized by Florida fishermen, as well as fiddle crabs, alligators , dolphins and over 280 native bird species. Second in size after the Kachemak Bay NERR in Alaska, the reserve also contains three barrier islands and much of the Apalachicola River, bay and its tributaries.

  • Area: Almost 235,000.
  • Annual visitors: 476 077 to 563 271. (The large size of the reserve and the numerous access points make it difficult to calculate a precise figure.)
  • Jobs: 664.
  • Revenue generated: $ 46.4 million, including $ 15.1 million in labor income.
  • Remarkable: Supports a fishery that generates 14 to 16 million dollars per year and directly supports up to 85% of the local population. Part of the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves.

Guana Tolomato Matanzas, Florida

brown pelican

A brown pelican hovers above the Guana Tolomato Matanzas NERR, which contains habitat and nesting sites for many species of marine life.
Steve allen
Alamy

From Ponte Vedra Beach in the north to Palm Coast in the south, the reserve crosses Duval, St. Johns and Flagler counties and is home to mangroves, salt marshes and other critical habitat. It provides shelter and nurseries for dolphins, manatees, American alligators, indigo snakes and bald eagles.

  • Area: About 73,000.
  • Annual visitors: 222 361.
  • Jobs: 521.
  • Revenue generated: $ 57.6 M, including $ 20 M in labor income.
  • Remarkable: The reserve has nesting areas for threatened and endangered Atlantic green, loggerhead and leatherback turtles, and winter calving areas for the critically endangered North Atlantic right whale. extinction.

Rookery Bay, Florida

Rookery Bay, Florida

Two fishermen enjoy inshore fishing at Rookery Bay NERR. Outdoor recreation represents a substantial part of the reserve’s economic contributions to surrounding communities.
Sue Christensen

The Rookery Bay NERR spans most of the northern Ten Thousand Islands region in Collier and Lee counties of Florida, encompassing mangroves, marshes and upland habitats that attract dolphins, manatees, approximately 150 species of birds and the endangered Florida panther. The reserve is also home to breeding grounds for blue and stone crabs, snooks, tarpon and snappers.

  • Area: About 110,000.
  • Annual visitors: 285,369.
  • Jobs: 512.
  • Revenue generated: $ 55 million, including $ 19 million in labor income.
  • Remarkable: Rookery Bay has one of the largest mangrove estuaries in North America. More than 90% of visitors to the reserve in 2019 were boaters.

South Slough, Oregon

South Slough NERR

Canoeists roam the South Slough NERR, which despite its relatively small area and remote location attracts thousands of outdoor enthusiasts each year.
Greg Vaughn
Alamy

The South Slough Preserve in Coos County, Oregon includes uplands with coniferous forests and freshwater streams, lowland wetlands and ponds, high and low grade marshes salt, mud flats and eelgrass beds, varied habitats that are home to salmon, elk and crabs.

  • Area: Almost 5,000.
  • Annual visitors: 9,947.
  • Jobs: 65.
  • Revenue generated: $ 6.1 M, including $ 2.3 M in labor income.
  • Remarkable: Conservation of the reserve supports commercial oyster farmers and provides important nursery habitat for nearby fisheries.

Thomas Wheatley manages ocean conservation efforts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Pew Marine Life Conservation Project in the United States.


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SAM calls on Pahang government to stop mining activities in Tasik Chini https://biofera.org/sam-calls-on-pahang-government-to-stop-mining-activities-in-tasik-chini/ https://biofera.org/sam-calls-on-pahang-government-to-stop-mining-activities-in-tasik-chini/#respond Fri, 11 Jun 2021 05:04:59 +0000 https://biofera.org/sam-calls-on-pahang-government-to-stop-mining-activities-in-tasik-chini/

by BERNAMA

KUALA LUMPUR – Sahabat Alam Malaysia (SAM) called for immediate action by the government of Pahang State to save the natural ecosystem of Malaysia’s second largest freshwater lake, Tasik Chini in Pekan, Pahang.

Its chairman Meenakshi Raman said the actions include stopping all mining activities in Tasik Chini and its surroundings.

“Other measures that must be taken immediately are to demolish the spillway that has affected the natural ecosystem of Tasik Chini.

“SAM is also urging the state government to classify Tasik Chini and its surrounding areas as a protected area as it is an environmentally sensitive area,” she said in a statement here today.

Meenakshi said SAM was concerned that the state government ‘s failure to meet its full commitment to address the issue could jeopardize the Tasik Chini biosphere reserve status, granted by the United Nations for the education, science and culture (UNESCO) in May 2009.

The Pahang Environment Ministry, in a statement yesterday, said the water quality in Tasik Chini is clean and safe for all life.

The Tasik Chini issue went viral on social media recently following the spread of photographs allegedly showing the lake at risk due to mining activities.

It drew reactions from various parties, including Pekan MP Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak, who claimed the photographs were taken two years ago.


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Brighton’s new Caribbean-inspired venue offers ‘all day party atmosphere’ https://biofera.org/brightons-new-caribbean-inspired-venue-offers-all-day-party-atmosphere/ https://biofera.org/brightons-new-caribbean-inspired-venue-offers-all-day-party-atmosphere/#respond Thu, 10 Jun 2021 23:56:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/brightons-new-caribbean-inspired-venue-offers-all-day-party-atmosphere/

Staff are ready to welcome customers in the Rum Kitchen on Black Lion Street, Brighton.  Photo by Jon Rigby

Staff are ready to welcome customers in the Rum Kitchen on Black Lion Street, Brighton. Photo by Jon Rigby

Rum Kitchen Brighton will be able to accommodate 300 people in-house; on two floors and 7,000 square feet.

Occupying Jamie’s former Italian site on Black Lion Street, there’s also a private dining room and separate bar that can be booked for parties and special events, as well as a rooftop terrace. This is the company’s fourth location, but its first outside London.

Managing Director Mike Parnham said: “Brighton is an incredibly energetic, fantastically eclectic and vibrant neighborhood with a history rooted in music and the arts – characteristics that match Rum Kitchen and who we are; we look forward to immersing ourselves in the culture and community, bringing our caribbean blend of rum, food and music to the city.

The Rum Kitchen menu includes over 100 different rums and exclusive dishes like Jerk Chicken and Goat Curry.

A spokesperson added: “Rum Kitchen’s food and drink menu is a celebration of bold and flavorful Caribbean-inspired ingredients, with a party atmosphere all day long and their fusion of rum, rotis, jerk BBQ and island flavors, all set to a roaring soundtrack, reggae, dancehall and soca beats, calypso-funk basslines and R&B grooves, accompanied by an impressive selection of drinks.

“Each room at Rum Kitchen is a tribute to the street party and community that is Notting Hill Carnival – ablaze with vibrant island colors and flavors, set against the soundtracks of steel pan bands and numerous systems. audio. “


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Gray whale found off the coast of Namibia swam almost halfway across the world and set a migration record https://biofera.org/gray-whale-found-off-the-coast-of-namibia-swam-almost-halfway-across-the-world-and-set-a-migration-record/ https://biofera.org/gray-whale-found-off-the-coast-of-namibia-swam-almost-halfway-across-the-world-and-set-a-migration-record/#respond Thu, 10 Jun 2021 11:54:24 +0000 https://biofera.org/gray-whale-found-off-the-coast-of-namibia-swam-almost-halfway-across-the-world-and-set-a-migration-record/

Image for representation. (Credit: REUTERS)

A 40-foot-long male gray whale became the first animal of its species to swim over 26,876 kilometers (16,700 miles), the longest distance on record in its history.

A 40-foot-long gray whale became the first animal of its species to swim over 26,876 kilometers (16,700 miles), the longest distance on record in their history. According to a study published Wednesday in Biology Letters, a group of scientists from the University of Durham and Sea Search Research and Conservation NPC, shows how they found a gray whale off the coast of Namibia which they say has roamed half of the globe to get there.

The gray whale traced by scientists is native to the North Pacific region. It was first noticed away from home in 2013, when fishermen reported its presence in Walvis Bay off the coast of Namibia. It was a very unusual sight since the gray whales had not been seen in the area. The report caught the attention of oceanographers and zoologists, which led to the training of researchers to learn more about the whale.

The team of researchers took a ship to obtain a small tissue sample of the 40-foot whale. Using this sample, Tess Gridley and Simon H. Elwen of Sea Search Research and Conservation teamed up with evolutionary biologist from Durham University Fatih Sarigol and A. Rus Hoelzel from the Department of Biosciences. Together, the team performed DNA analysis of whale genomes along with other gray whale genomes stored at the US National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Their analysis showed that the gray whale swimming around the Namibian coast was directly linked to an endangered western population of gray whales that normally live in the North Pacific. According to data, it is believed that there are only 200 western gray whales left in the world. Therefore, sightings of this gray whale are quite rare.

After confirming its origins, scientists then traced its possible route so far from its usual location. The study suggests that the male cetacean could have taken a Canadian route through the Northwest Passage, or that it could have swam from the southern route around South America or even across the Indian Ocean. Whichever route you take, the gray whale has clearly traveled half the planet. This unusual long-distance journey by the gray whale also suggests how warming oceans are forcing some marine animals to search for a better biosphere for their survival.

Read all the latest news, breaking news and coronavirus news here


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How are the atmosphere and environmental pollution related? https://biofera.org/how-are-the-atmosphere-and-environmental-pollution-related/ https://biofera.org/how-are-the-atmosphere-and-environmental-pollution-related/#respond Thu, 10 Jun 2021 08:03:23 +0000 https://biofera.org/how-are-the-atmosphere-and-environmental-pollution-related/

While the waste that is disposed of in nature stays in one place, air pollution does not stop at national borders. The wind can carry exhaust gases or particles that we humans emit into the atmosphere over very long distances to the most remote areas. This often does not only lead to air pollution, as many pollutants can be deposited on the ground or deposited in the atmosphere through rain and thus contaminate the soil, lakes and oceans all over the world.

Already the Romans polluted the air

More than 2000 years ago, the extraction of silver in Europe resulted in the emission of lead dust. The use of drinking vessels and other lead objects has caused chronic poisoning. Lead dust was transported long distances through the atmosphere, also to Greenland, where the lead was deposited in the ice like an archive. The analyzes of ice cores show very well that we can trace the economic situation in the Roman Empire, the wars and the plagues that influenced the exploitation of silver, and therefore the emissions of lead, based on on the chronological sequence of lead deposits.

Acid rain

Lead emissions in Roman times were still relatively low and lead concentrations in Greenland ice easily detectable, but not alarming. The use of leaded gasoline, however, caused much higher emissions in the second half of the 20th century. Thus, lead deposits in Greenland ice have reached a whole new dimension. Thus, lead in the air has become a problem for the entire northern hemisphere. In the meantime, emissions have again been significantly reduced, among other things, due to the ban on leaded petrol. As a result, the impact on the environment and our health has also been reduced. However, burning fossil fuels also releases many other pollutants.

Achim Steiner, head of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), talks with environmental economist Alexandra Brausmann, meteorologist Andreas Stohl – both from the University of Vienna – as well as Katharina Rogenhofer , federal spokesperson for the People’s Climate Petition and former student of the University of Vienna. Martin Kotynek, editor-in-chief of the daily “Der Standard” hosts the event which takes place on Monday June 14, 2021 at 6:00 pm. The discussion is in English and there will also be a Live-Ticker.

In the 1950s and 1960s it was believed that only cities had this problem and that it could be solved locally. Over the following decades, we came to the conclusion that the atmosphere distributes pollutants across the continent. For example, we found that fish in Norwegian lakes were dying from acidification of water bodies. The sulfur emissions causing this acidification were carried into the atmosphere from western and central Europe. We have also been able to combat this “acid rain” by reducing sulfur emissions. In the meantime, the Norwegian lakes are again significantly less acidic.

Ozone and other air pollutants

However, it has become increasingly evident that huge domes of pollutants hang over central Europe and the west and east coasts of North America. They are made up of a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides and other gases, particles and secondary air pollutants, such as ozone. These pollutant domes are still hanging over Europe and North America, but are already much worse in Asia.

Intercontinental air pollution

In the late 1990s, I was able to personally contribute a lot to the discovery of the phenomenon that air pollution does not stay on individual continents but is blown from one continent to another. Today we know, for example, that in the case of ozone, it can be very difficult to reach threshold values ​​by regional measurements. The importation of increasing concentrations of ozone from the huge industrialized urban agglomerations of Asia is causing serious problems in North America, among others, and it cannot be overlooked in our region either. And also the accidents at the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plants have shown that air pollution, in this case radioactive substances, can spread very far.

Microplastics everywhere

Currently, we are mainly talking about microplastics. Its global presence has already been proven. It is found in national parks, the Arctic or even Antarctica. Through the atmosphere, even the smallest plastic particles from tire debris, textiles, and other sources can reach virtually any region on Earth. We are already facing plasticization of the environment. This means that not only do we release microplastics directly, but they also come from secondary sources. This is the basis of the hypothesis that the ocean and farmland are already contaminated to such an extent that they themselves are today huge sources of microplastics, releasing microplastics into the atmosphere that we breathe.

As a result, larger plastic particles that would not normally be carried this far through the atmosphere can “jump” like grasshoppers into the atmosphere over and over again. This way, even the most remote parts of the world are polluted with plastics. Of course, this also increases the overall contamination of the air with microplastics, even in our region. With the air we breathe, the smallest of these plastic particles reaches our lungs and from there probably our bloodstream as well. Unfortunately, we can only speculate on the impact on our health.

Conclusion

Transport through the atmosphere is the reason why we cannot solve the problem of environmental pollution at local or regional level but why we need global measures. We humans are really affecting the entire planet: this is the time of the Anthropocene.

How to reduce environmental pollution?

Can we escape our responsibility by attributing it entirely to governments or even to international organizations? If we do not act in Austria, can we expect the poorest countries to take them before us? Or isn’t the rule the same here as for the climate: think globally, act locally? So you, dear reader, may be part of the solution to the problem. (Andreas Stohl / red)

This article was originally published in German on Der Standard as part of the “Semester Question”, a cooperative project of the University of Vienna and Der Standard.


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The award-winning Ballantrae food and drink festival is back online this weekend https://biofera.org/the-award-winning-ballantrae-food-and-drink-festival-is-back-online-this-weekend/ https://biofera.org/the-award-winning-ballantrae-food-and-drink-festival-is-back-online-this-weekend/#respond Wed, 09 Jun 2021 18:45:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/the-award-winning-ballantrae-food-and-drink-festival-is-back-online-this-weekend/

The award-winning Ballantrae food and drink festival will take place online again this year.

Following last year’s success, the festival is expanding its virtual reach by partnering with Norway, Finland and Germany.

And it aims to offer foodies a program filled with online markets, video presentations, discussions on sustainable food tourism and interactive sessions organized in collaboration with UNESCO Biospheres, The Scottish Food Guide and Slow Food.

Participants will understand; a farmer of wild sheep from Norhordland, a gatherer of wild foods from North Karelia and a producer of apple-sherry from Rhon – whose apple-sherry is aged in casks of Scotch whiskey.

The festival – which takes place this weekend on Saturday June 12 and Sunday June 13 – is supported by Ballantrae Community Development Trust and the revolutionary format adapted to last year’s Covid saw more than 7,000 visitors engage in line, compared to around 3,000 to 4,000 in previous events.

Organizers hope to build on that commitment this year with the benefit of additional funding partners and with support from the Scotland Food and Drink Regional Food Group, whose coordinators have been working with the Ballantrae team since October 2020.

Dr Mhairi Mckenna, Organizing Group Ballantrae (BFFD), said the team was “delighted that UNESCO biospheres are supporting this important initiative”.

Howard Wilkinson, Chairman of the Ayrshire Food Network, added: “The additional resources that SFAD funding has provided us over the past nine months have enabled us to engage more broadly with food tourism businesses across the South. west of Scotland.



The Ayrshire Live app is available for download now.

Get all the local news in your area – plus features, football news and the latest information on the coronavirus crisis – right at your fingertips 24/7.

The free download features the latest breaking news and exclusive stories, while you can customize your page with the sections that interest you.

The Ayrshire Live app is available for download now on iOS and Android.

Marie McNulty, Business Development Manager at the UNESCO Galloway and South Ayrshire Biosphere, appealed to the organization’s international contacts for the biosphere.

Marie said: “Many learning opportunities arise from transnational exchanges and we want to bring our global network to the heart of the Ayrshire and Ballantrae communities.

“And the Ballantrae Festival of Food and Drink is the perfect time to do so, especially in light of the 50th anniversary of UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Program, which aims to improve the relationship between people and the environment and make our food systems sustainable. “

For more information on the organizations involved, visit www.ballantraefoodfest.com; www.ayrshirefoodnetwork.co.uk; www.gsabiosphere.org.uk

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Hydrogen enrichment after fusion in the oceanic lithosphere https://biofera.org/hydrogen-enrichment-after-fusion-in-the-oceanic-lithosphere/ https://biofera.org/hydrogen-enrichment-after-fusion-in-the-oceanic-lithosphere/#respond Wed, 09 Jun 2021 18:00:35 +0000 https://biofera.org/hydrogen-enrichment-after-fusion-in-the-oceanic-lithosphere/

Abstract

The wide range of H2The O contents recorded in the minerals of the exhumed mantle rocks have been difficult to interpret, as they often record a combination of melting, metasomatism and diffusion processes in spatially isolated samples. Here we determine the temporal variations of H2O content in pyroxenes from a 24 Ma time series of abyssal peridotites exposed along the Vema fracture zone (Atlantic Ocean). The H2O contents of pyroxenes correlate with crustal ages and pyroxene chemistry and increase towards younger, more refractory peridotites. These variations are inconsistent with the post-melting residuals and opposed to trends often observed in mantle xenoliths. Hydrogen enrichment after melting occurred by ion diffusion during cryptic metasomatism of peridotite residues by low-level volatile-rich melts and was particularly effective in the more depleted peridotites. The presence of hydric melting under the ridges results in a generalized incorporation of hydrogen into the oceanic lithosphere, probably reducing the viscosity of the mantle compared to dry models.


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Protect the oceans, says the UN to the nations https://biofera.org/protect-the-oceans-says-the-un-to-the-nations/ https://biofera.org/protect-the-oceans-says-the-un-to-the-nations/#respond Wed, 09 Jun 2021 16:53:59 +0000 https://biofera.org/protect-the-oceans-says-the-un-to-the-nations/

THE UNITED NATIONS: UN Secretary-General António Guterres called on Tuesday (Wednesday in Manila) for efforts to protect the oceans.

The recently released Second Global Oceans Assessment confirmed that many of the benefits the global ocean provides to humanity are being undermined by human actions, he said in a post for World Oceans Day, which falls on June 8.

“Our seas are suffocated by plastic waste, which can be found from the most remote atolls to the deepest ocean trenches. Overfishing results in an annual loss of nearly $ 90 billion in net profits, which also increases the vulnerability of women, who are vital for the survival of artisanal fishing enterprises, ”he said.

Aerial photo taken on June 2, 2021 showing the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, Australia. The Great Barrier Reef, the world’s largest coral reef in the Australian state of Queensland, is described as “the most beautiful marine environment on the planet” and is the primary conservation target for Citizens of the Great Barrier Reef, a cooperative charitable organization that runs a series of preserving programs. XINHUA PHOTO

Carbon emissions cause the oceans to warm and acidify, destroying biodiversity and causing sea level rise that threatens heavily inhabited coasts, he noted.

The theme of this year’s celebration, “The Ocean: Life and Livelihood,” highlights the importance of the oceans to cultural life and the economic survival of communities around the world. More than 3 billion people depend on the ocean for their livelihoods, the vast majority in developing countries, Guterres said.

“As we strive to recover from Covid-19, let’s end our war on nature. This will be essential to achieve the sustainable development goals, keep within reach of the 1.5 degree target of the Paris Agreement and ensure the health of our oceans for present and future generations ”, a- he declared.

The ocean is the mass of salt water that covers about 71 percent of the Earth’s surface. It is also “one of the great bodies of water into which the great ocean is divided”. A common definition lists five oceans, in descending order by area, the Pacific, the Atlantic, India, the Antarctic and the Arctic.

The world’s ocean contains 97 percent of the Earth’s water, and oceanographers have said less than 20 percent of the oceans have been mapped. Since the global ocean is the main component of the earth’s hydrosphere, it is an integral part of life, part of the carbon cycle, and influences climate and weather patterns.

The ocean is home to 230,000 known species, but since much of it is unexplored, the number of species in the ocean is much larger, possibly over 2 million.


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Indian scientists are developing a new technique capable of detecting tropical cyclones earlier than satellites! | The Weather Channel – Articles de The Weather Channel https://biofera.org/indian-scientists-are-developing-a-new-technique-capable-of-detecting-tropical-cyclones-earlier-than-satellites-the-weather-channel-articles-de-the-weather-channel/ https://biofera.org/indian-scientists-are-developing-a-new-technique-capable-of-detecting-tropical-cyclones-earlier-than-satellites-the-weather-channel-articles-de-the-weather-channel/#respond Wed, 09 Jun 2021 13:29:53 +0000 https://biofera.org/indian-scientists-are-developing-a-new-technique-capable-of-detecting-tropical-cyclones-earlier-than-satellites-the-weather-channel-articles-de-the-weather-channel/

Representative image of a cyclone

(NASA / International Space Station)

Indian scientists have found a promising technique for the early detection of the development or enhancement of tropical cyclones in the atmospheric column before satellite detection at the ocean surface in the northern Indian Ocean region.

Until now, remote sensing techniques have detected them the earliest. However, this detection was only possible after the system developed as a well-marked low pressure system on the warm ocean surface.

The study was conducted with cases of four severe post-monsoon cyclones — Phailin (2013), Vardah (2013), Gaja (2018), Madi (2013) and two pre-monsoon cyclones Mora (2017) and Aila (2009 ) which developed over the northern Indian Ocean region.

The early detection of tropical cyclones has broad socio-economic implications. A longer time interval between detection and impact of the cyclone could help preparedness activities.

Prior to the formation of a cyclonic system on the warm ocean environment, the initial mechanism of atmospheric instability, as well as the development of vortices, is triggered at higher atmospheric levels.

These cyclonic eddies are important features of the vertical atmospheric column encompassing the disturbing environment with the potential to induce and develop into a well-marked cyclonic depression on the warm ocean surface, the Department of Science and Technology said on Wednesday. of Technology.

A team of scientists including Jiya Albert, Bishnupriya Sahoo and Prasad K. Bhaskaran from IIT Kharagpur, with support from the Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India under the Climate Change Program (CCP), designed the new method using the detection of vortices. technique to study the stages of formation and the advanced detection time of tropical cyclogenesis in the northern Indian Ocean region.

The research was published in the journal Atmospheric research recently.

The method developed by scientists aims to identify the first traces of precyclonic vortices in the atmospheric column and to follow its spatio-temporal evolution. They used a coarser grid resolution of 27 km for identification and a finer resolution of 9 km to assess vortex characteristics.

“The team observed that the method could result in the genesis of the prediction with a minimum delay of four days (90 hours) for cyclones developed during the seasons before and after the monsoon,” the ministry said.

“The initiation mechanisms of tropical cyclone genesis occur at higher atmospheric levels and are also detected at a longer time frame for pre-monsoon cases, unlike post-monsoon cases.”

The study thoroughly investigated the behavior of vortices in an atmospheric column for non-developing cases and compared these results with developing cases.

The technique has been shown to have the potential for early detection of tropical cyclogenesis in the atmospheric column before satellite detection above the ocean surface.

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The above article was published by a news agency with minimal title and text changes.


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