Biofera http://biofera.org/ Fri, 20 May 2022 20:55:05 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://biofera.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/biofera-icon-150x150.png Biofera http://biofera.org/ 32 32 Access new avenues to manage your wealth with insurance-backed lines of credit (IBLOC) https://biofera.org/access-new-avenues-to-manage-your-wealth-with-insurance-backed-lines-of-credit-ibloc/ Fri, 20 May 2022 20:55:05 +0000 https://biofera.org/access-new-avenues-to-manage-your-wealth-with-insurance-backed-lines-of-credit-ibloc/

Date: Wednesday, June 22, 2022

Weather: 1 p.m. ET | 10 a.m. PT

Cost: Free

Webcast sponsored by:

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Join this free webcast to learn more about IBLOCs and how they are an indispensable tool for effectively managing your clients’ wealth. The benefits of this strategy that will be highlighted include:

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REGISTER NOW! (Can’t attend? We recommend that you ALWAYS REGISTER – you will receive an email with how to access the event registration)

Speakers:

John Profitlich | Director, Northeast Regional Business Development Officer | Bancorp Institutional Bank

Abdullah Rajput | Director, Head of IBLOC | Bancorp Institutional Bank

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Portugal ‘should be ‘sold’ as the most sustainable country in the world’ https://biofera.org/portugal-should-be-sold-as-the-most-sustainable-country-in-the-world/ Fri, 20 May 2022 14:36:42 +0000 https://biofera.org/portugal-should-be-sold-as-the-most-sustainable-country-in-the-world/

Tourism Secretary Rita Marques made a valiant effort to increase positive sound bites today by suggesting Portugal should be marketed as ‘the most sustainable country in the world”.

“This is what we want,” she said at an event in Vouzela – just as her government colleague Duarte Cordeiro was in another part of the country to explain the obstacles to getting there.

“Portugal is one of the (European) countries that will be most affected by climate change“, he declared in his capacity as minister of the environment.

To deal with it, the whole coast needs permanent interventions – a persistent and vigilant beach replenishment (to compensate for the sand carried away by the rise in sea level); repositioning of dune systems (again because of lost sand); maintenance of coastal defense works and the coastal breakwater dredging/ dune systems)”.

In other words, Portugal could well be sold as the most sustainable country in the world, but for this a huge amount of work, investment and vigilance will be required.

Rita Marques admitted that a joint effort “is needed” at different levels – namely economic, environmental and social, to achieve sustainable tourism certifications”.

But she estimates that if this is done, the country could be on the right track to reach in 2027 tourism receipts of 28 billion euros. “It’s a very concrete target,” she told her audience.

Currently, in the central region, there are approximately 140 companies (mainly seasonal rentals and “tourist activities”) which have or are in the process of carrying out coveted projects. UNESCO Biosphere accreditation.

“Tourism cannot simply be commercialized because Portugal has extraordinary assets: idyllic landscapes, a wonderful sea and truly delicious gastronomy,” Marques said. “We have to work towards a different perspective and professionalize this work, orient it towards the major trends (…) Today, sustainability is viewed positively by customers,” she stressed.

While climate change is not. This is where “the perseverance and vigilance” of Duarte Cordeiro will have to intervene.

The minister was in Vila do Conde for the signing of a €800,000 protocol for interventions aimed at “protecting the dune system between Mindelo and Ribeiro de Silvares”.

He described other interventions along the national coastline involving 143 million euros and “large volumes of sand”.

natasha.donn@algarveresident.com

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Boston United must ’embrace’ partisan atmosphere in York – Paul Cox https://biofera.org/boston-united-must-embrace-partisan-atmosphere-in-york-paul-cox/ Fri, 20 May 2022 05:20:41 +0000 https://biofera.org/boston-united-must-embrace-partisan-atmosphere-in-york-paul-cox/
Ntumba Massanka will return to former club York City. Photo: Olivier Atkin

The Pilgrims head to the LNER Community Stadium on Saturday for the National League North promotion final (KO 3pm).

While the majority of the crowd of 8,500 will support the home team, Cox doesn’t want his team to be intimidated.

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“A home crowd can be what you make it,” said Cox, who has already led United and former side Kettering Town to league wins at York this season.

“I tell boys to reverse the psychology. You can either go to a place and fear it or go embrace it.

“Every time we’ve been to York I’ve seen players embrace the noise.

“We know that’s what we’re playing in. It’s going to be vocal, but our audience is.

“Sometimes we haven’t embraced the pressure and I can’t wait to be there.”

Sunday’s semi-final victory at AFC Fylde sparked wild scenes after Danny Elliott’s late brace secured a 2-0 win, with videos of players and fans celebrating on the pitch and in the dressing room doing the rounds on social media.

While Cox was happy that his side – which started without 11 first-team starters – are enjoying their moment, he is quick to point out that the hard work starts now.

“Nothing has been accomplished yet. People can say ‘oh, it’s a semi-final’ but a final is a horrible place to go and not win it,” he said.

“I’m all for celebrating if we want to win against York.

“What an opportunity it will be to go there, a full stadium, a good atmosphere and two teams that probably no one thought were in this position. But hey, let’s go.”

However, Cox believes his team – which included former ministers Jake Wright jnr, Ntumba Massanka, Tom Platt and Jordan Burrow – have the right attitude towards York.

“I look at the body language and the mindset of the group,” the manager said.

“No one is getting carried away yet. We have beaten two fabulous football teams who are both full time.

“We don’t need to slim down the kit, it’s all done and dusted, we have to work.”

Jake Wright senior and James Hanson could be available for Saturday’s final.

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Crypto startup KaJ Labs raises $400 million for the development and adoption of GEM Digital For Lithosphere (LITHO) https://biofera.org/crypto-startup-kaj-labs-raises-400-million-for-the-development-and-adoption-of-gem-digital-for-lithosphere-litho/ Wed, 18 May 2022 12:47:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/crypto-startup-kaj-labs-raises-400-million-for-the-development-and-adoption-of-gem-digital-for-lithosphere-litho/

SEATTLE, May 18, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — KaJ Labs has grabbed headlines with the announcement of its Lithosphere blockchain platform and unique interoperability capabilities. The foundation has just announced that Lithosphere sold $400 million worth of LITHO tokens to Global Emerging Markets (GEM) digital, Four private equity investors. Gem is a $5 billion alternative investment group based in the Bahamian. This deal marks the second largest seed funding round raised in 2022 so far.

The structure of the agreement is in the form of a token subscription facility (“TSF”), which Lithosphere can withdraw at its option by selling Litho tokens to GEM. The funding enables new product development and global adoption of Lithosphere, while providing more people with the opportunity to add the cryptocurrency to their portfolios.

“Lithosphere is a user-owned and user-controlled network and these funds will fuel even more community innovation. The purchase of Litho tokens by GEM signifies a commitment to the long-term development of Lithosphere and the growth of the Web3 ecosystem” , said Joel Kasr. “This $400 million buying Litho is for all of us who help build Lithosphere. We invite you to come build with us.”

The funding enables new product development and global adoption of Lithosphere, while providing more people with the opportunity to add the cryptocurrency to their portfolios.

Lithosphere’s Jot Art Metaverse recently launched a Play-to-Earn RPG – Delicacy with game elements represented by NFTs. True to Lithosphere’s mission of interoperability across all existing blockchains, the Jot Art metaverse will initially support Ethereum and BNB Chain (BSC) NFTs and in the near future Jot Art will support blockchains. additional once the Lithosphere mainnet is launched.

The platform eliminates many of the problems inherent in existing blockchain networks by being the first blockchain to use embedded deep neural networks to make smart contracts smarter and with the goal of allowing users to work across multiple blockchain networks. This interoperability allows multiple methods of transferring value under a single management structure.

the $400 million funding commitment of GEM at Lithosphere makes possible a variety of new products and innovations. Lithosphere is making a distinctive mark around the world with its artificial intelligence, Deep Neural Networks integrated blockchain technology, and interoperability across multiple cryptocurrency networks – and that’s just the beginning.

LITHO is available on MEXC (LITHO/USDT).

Get the latest updates from the Lithosphere team. Join our community on Telegram, Discord, Twitterand our Website.

About the lithosphere
Lithosphere is the next-generation platform for cross-chain applications powered by AI and Deep Learning.

On KaJ Laboratories
KaJ Laboratories is a decentralized research organization focused on AI and blockchain technology. We are driven to create innovative products that work for the greater good around the world.

About Global Emerging Markets
GEM Digital Limited is a $5 billion digital asset investment company based in The Bahamian. GEM manages a diverse set of investment vehicles focused on emerging markets and has completed over 400 transactions in 70 countries. Each investment vehicle has a different degree of operational control, risk-adjusted return and liquidity profile. The family of funds and investment vehicles provides GEM and its partners with exposure to small and mid-cap management buyouts, private investments in public equities, and certain venture capital investments.

Media inquiries
Juliet N
Phone: (707)-622-6168
E-mail: [email protected]
KaJ Labs Foundation
4730 University Way NE 104-#175
Seattle, WA 98105
Website: https://kajlabs.org
Website: https://lithosphere.network

THE SOURCE KaJ Laboratories

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Arizona-Israel Research Collaboration Reveals New Name | Community https://biofera.org/arizona-israel-research-collaboration-reveals-new-name-community/ Tue, 17 May 2022 21:23:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/arizona-israel-research-collaboration-reveals-new-name-community/

When it was founded in 2019, the then-named Joint Institute for Global Food, Water and Energy Security in Israel represented a partnership between the University of Arizona – which has a wealth of arid agriculture and climate research. water – the Jewish National Fund-USA and experts in Israel’s Arava Valley.

“If you have enough water, then the other things come. If you don’t, then it’s hard to imagine life on earth. There are very talented and experienced scientists on both sides, at the University of Arizona and at Arava, so who am I to tell them what to do? said Mike Kasser, explaining why he and his wife, Beth, helped found and fund the institute that now adopts their name.

To honor and recognize their commitment to founding and funding the institute, the research collaboration will henceforth be known as the Kasser Joint Institute for Food, Water and Energy Security; after the couple’s cumulative donations to the institute hit $1 million.

Kasser is a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, holds a doctorate in engineering from the University of Grenoble in France and an MBA from Harvard Business School. He and his wife travel a lot, speak several languages ​​and are very interested in science, arts and culture. The couple met at the Yonkers Marathon in New York and have since run dozens of marathons and done several Ironman triathlons in Hawaii.

One of their most important initiatives – contributing logistically and financially to the Joint Institute for Global Food, Water and Energy Security for several years – is another passion.

On a trip to Israel with Russel Robinson, CEO of the Jewish National Fund-USA, the Kassers visited the Arava Valley, one of the country’s most important agricultural regions. Robinson shared his goal of connecting the region to a university in the United States, and Arizona residents suggested their state institution.






Arava International Center for Agricultural Training Students from all over the world come to learn at the Kasser Institute.




“I brought Russell together with my good friend Joaquin Ruiz at the University of Arizona, the former dean of the College of Science, and I knew we would have a good partner to study water issues,” Kasser said. . As vice president of Global Environmental Futures at UA and director of Biosphere 2, home to the world’s largest lab experiment in earth science, Ruiz has been instrumental in bringing the project to fruition.

Arizona, especially the southern part of the state, is arid like the Arava Valley, which receives an average of only four millimeters of precipitation each year. As the population grows, Israel struggles to regulate water use in the Arava Valley, which borders Jordan.

“The institute’s name change represents the continuation of an innovative project and reflects the confidence that our donors have in this project. We hope that with the name change, more donors will learn about the Kasser Joint Institute and choose to become active partners in this unique endeavour,” said Tania Pons Allon, director of the institute.

Water shortages have many effects, including energy and food insecurity. The Kasser Joint Institute uses a multidisciplinary approach to problem solving by organizing working committees with representatives from the University of Arizona, the Arava region, and local farmers. In the three years since its founding, the institute has focused on two large-scale research projects that will eventually be implemented in the target communities.

The first project is an off-grid agrivoltaic system where crops are grown under solar panels. In this system, the sun is used twice: for food production and to produce energy. “The energy produced in these systems can provide electricity for water treatment, pumping, chiller storage and any other solution the local community will need,” added Pons Allon.

The second project is an aquaponic system where the fish are raised in tanks and then the water from the tanks is used to irrigate the hydroponic crops. This system is completely off-grid with the use of solar panels and could be used to feed a family and generate income.

These research projects can be used to solve problems in the Arava Valley and other regions with similar climates, such as parts of Mexico and Africa. These findings will be used to develop solutions, training and education.

The Kassers are excited to develop partnerships and funding for the institute that now bears their name for one important reason: the world needs immediate solutions to water resource problems.

Although the Kasser Joint Institute is still in its infancy, the couple are already seeing the results of their philanthropy as solutions are discovered and shared with other drylands or developing areas. “It’s going as well if not better than I expected,” Kasser said. “Sometimes things work, sometimes they don’t, but it works.” At the same time, the Kassers know that the institute and its climate research need all the support they can get – and soon. As he added, “there is a lot of work to be done. It’s not going to happen anytime soon, it’s going to continue and I hope other people will be part of this work and build on it. For all of our good. jn

Bea Carter is a freelance writer living in Washington State.

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LANL to Participate in National Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Campaigns – Los Alamos Reporter https://biofera.org/lanl-to-participate-in-national-atmospheric-radiation-measurement-campaigns-los-alamos-reporter/ Tue, 17 May 2022 19:24:29 +0000 https://biofera.org/lanl-to-participate-in-national-atmospheric-radiation-measurement-campaigns-los-alamos-reporter/

NNSA PRESS RELEASE

The Los Alamos Field Office (DOE/NNSA) of the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration has issued a categorical exclusion for Home Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Campaigns – Aerosol Precipitation Experiment in Eastern Pacific Clouds (EPCAPE).

The DOE, Office of Science, in conjunction with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), conducts atmospheric and environmental research and monitoring activities by deploying mobile facilities and equipment (including weather balloons) for 1-2 years at sites across the United States. The DOE and Triad National Security, LLC, LANL’s operating contractor, are offering to deploy equipment and launch weather balloons in support of EPCAPE.

This project will characterize the extent, radiative properties, aerosol interactions, and precipitation characteristics of stratocumulus clouds in the eastern Pacific throughout the year at two coastal sites owned and managed by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography of the United States. ‘University of California, San Diego: The Scripps Pier and the Scripps Pier Sites of Mount Soledad in La Jolla, California. To facilitate data collection, the project plans to launch weather balloons at a rate of two per day, plus 360 additional balloons in spring and summer. About six other weather balloon launches are planned during the establishment of the project. In total, the project proposes to launch approximately 1,100 weather balloons over the one-year duration of the EPCAPE campaign. Activities would be designed in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements and using best management practices. After the data collection period, each site would be restored to pre-project conditions.

The NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination can be viewed online at CX-270664: Domestic Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Campaigns – Eastern Pacific Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (EPCAPE) | Ministry of Energy

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Dr. Dennis McKenna to Host Landmark Symposium on Live Psychoactivity https://biofera.org/dr-dennis-mckenna-to-host-landmark-symposium-on-live-psychoactivity/ Tue, 17 May 2022 02:06:23 +0000 https://biofera.org/dr-dennis-mckenna-to-host-landmark-symposium-on-live-psychoactivity/

On the 55th anniversary of the original program presented by the United States government in 1967, the McKenna Academy of Natural Philosophy welcomes its first Ethnopharmacological research of psychoactive drugs (ESPD55) event May 23-26, 2022. Seen by hundreds of thousands when held in 2017 (ESPD50), this year’s event is thoughtfully curated by Dr. Dennis McKenna and features over 30 sessions exploring the potential of ethnopharmacology for humanity.

The live streams will cover a four-day program organized by life-centered themes or spheres: ARCHEOSPHERE, ETHNOSPHERE, FAUNASPHERE, HYDROSPHERE, MYCOSPHERE, NEUROSPHERE, PHYTOSPHERE, SOCIOSPHERE, SONOSPHERE. Esteemed speakers include Monica Gagliano, Mark Plotkin, Elaine Elisabetsky, Andrew Weil, Wade Davis, Paul Stamets and David Nutt. They will be joined by other innovators who will meet in the UK at St. Giles House in Dorset. Topics on the program include how psychedelics can change the future of mental health therapy, how ancient knowledge can inform scientific discovery, what sustainability means for herbal medicines, and other relevant areas of psychoactive study. .

The Academy will also present its first documentary: BioGnosis: bridges to AAncestral wisdom. The film follows an Academy project to preserve valuable and therapeutic plants threatened with extinction at a vital facility in the Peruvian jungle. Called Herbarium Amazonense, it not only houses nearly 160,000 specimens, but they are all digitized to serve generations to come.

The symposium begins at 09:00 on the 23rdrd of May and ends at 8:00 p.m. on the 26th of May (GMT).

Admission to the livestream is through a minimum contribution of $10. Everyone is welcome.

Contact: espd@mckenna.academy

Residence

Residence

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How to Pay Off Debt Before a Recession – Forbes Advisor https://biofera.org/how-to-pay-off-debt-before-a-recession-forbes-advisor/ Mon, 16 May 2022 19:05:36 +0000 https://biofera.org/how-to-pay-off-debt-before-a-recession-forbes-advisor/ Editorial Note: We earn a commission on partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect the opinions or ratings of our editors.

In times of economic uncertainty, many Americans are becoming more cautious about how they spend their extra cash. But if you’re also in debt, you might be wondering how to prepare for a recession and what impact it might have on your finances.

Here’s why a recession could be a possibility in the near future and the different strategies you can use to get your debt under control in a recession.

Strategies for Managing Debt Before a Recession Hits

Lisa Kirchenbauer, CFP and founder of Omega Wealth Management, emphasizes that managing your finances before a recession hits is all about striking a balance. While paying off debt is important, it may not be the smartest decision if it takes all your cash away.

After all, you may need to have an emergency fund on hand if you are unlucky enough to lose a job in the future. According to data from the Pew Research Center15% of American adults faced at least one spell of unemployment in 2020, last year the United States went through a recession.

But if you’re determined to pay off your debt while the economy is stable, here are some strategies you can use to get closer to the finish line.

How to pay off credit card debt

If you have a balance on your credit cards, you can pay a lot of interest over time. According to the Federal Reserve, in March 2022, the the average credit card interest rate was 16.17% on assessed interest accounts. However, Kirchenbauer points out that some card rates can be even higher, especially for borrowers with lower credit scores.

Let’s say you have $5,000 and your credit card variable APR is 16%. If you pay $200 a month, it will take you 31 months to pay off your debt and you will be charged interest of $1,112. And with interest rates going up, you could end up owing even more interest.

If your cards already have balances, Bruce McClary, senior vice president of memberships and communications for the National Foundation for Credit Counseling, recommends talking to your lender.

It says if your credit score has improved since you first applied for your card, you may be able to negotiate a lower interest rate, which could save you money in fees. of interests.

How to repay personal loans

If you’re having trouble managing the monthly payments on a personal loan, Kirchenbauer recommends determining if it’s possible to transfer the debt to another financial product with a more affordable interest rate. She suggests looking into a 0% APR balance transfer card or a home equity line of credit.

However, debt transfer can involve risks. If you pay off your personal loans early, it may result in a prepayment penalty, which is a fee your lender may charge you if you pay off your loan sooner than expected. Kirchenbauer adds that 0% APR cards and HELOCs may only be available to those with very good to excellent credit scores.

For those with low credit scores, Todd Christensen, the education manager at Debt Reduction Services, Inc, a nonprofit financial counseling agency, says reworking your budget may be your best bet. “It’s not complicated,” he says, “but cutting back on non-essential expenses or starting a side business to generate extra income can go a long way in helping you keep up with your payments.”

How to pay off student loan debt

Most Americans with federal student loan debt can rest easy for now, as their payments are suspended until August 31, 2022. And President Biden has dangled the promise of student loan forgiveness to millions of people. borrowers.

Private student borrowers, on the other hand, may not be so lucky. Yet, while there is no blanket forbearance program, many lenders have offered extended forbearance options in the wake of the pandemic. For example, CommonBond allows its borrowers to access a natural disaster forbearance programwhich allows loans to remain in abeyance for up to 30 days after the national emergency declaration ends.

Forbearance pauses your payments for a set period of time while you get back on your feet and may be an option to consider if you are having trouble keeping up with your payments in the future. But keep in mind that interest may continue to accrue on your loan, which means this move may end up costing you more money in the long run.

How to pay off your mortgage

Unfortunately, according to Todd Huettner of Huettner Capital, the time to refinance your mortgage and lock in a lower interest rate has probably passed, as the average mortgage rate is now above 5% (compare it to 2.65% in January 2021).

Huettner says that if you’re in a situation where you have to choose which debt to pay off, homeowners should try to prioritize their mortgage payments because their home is likely their most valuable asset. “Even if you have to sell something valuable to make the payment, having a roof over your head is well worth the cost,” he says.

If you are experiencing temporary financial difficulties such as job loss, you may be able to get help from your lender. Like student loans, many mortgage officers offer forbearance programs for those who need help. In situations where difficulties persist over the long term, your lender can also help you explore more drastic options, such as a short sale.

While selling your home isn’t ideal, in many cases a short sale is considered a better option than defaulting on your mortgage and losing your home to foreclosure, as the impact on your credit scores is less important.

What steps should you take if you cannot repay your debts?

Unfortunately, even if you follow the tips above, it’s not always possible to get your debt under control. Here are some steps you can take if it becomes increasingly difficult to track your payments.

  • Reduce your budget: Reducing your budget should always be your first line of defense. Reducing — or even pausing non-essential spending for the time being — can give you more leeway to pay down debt. If you want to make sure your money is going to the right place, consider setting up autopay, which allows your creditors to take payment directly from your account, or setting aside the funds in a separate savings account. .
  • Work with your lender: If you’re having financial difficulty, lenders may allow you to find an alternate method of payment, such as temporarily suspending your payments while you get back on your feet or setting up a payment plan with a lower monthly payment or interest rate. more affordable interest.
  • Credit advice: If you’re going into more debt, consider getting credit counseling from an accredited nonprofit agency. Many reputable agencies offer counseling services at little or no cost to you.
  • Debt Consolidation: Debt consolidation allows you to streamline multiple debt payments into one and can help you save on interest. Typically, borrowers do this by taking out a new loan and using the funds to pay off their existing balances. You may have to pay fees on the new loan, which can increase your total borrowing costs.
  • Debt settlement: With this method, your creditors agree to accept less than they are owed in exchange for payment under a court-ordered repayment plan. Kirchenbauer says to be aware that debt settlements are reported to major credit bureaus and will negatively impact your scores, which may impact your ability to be approved for affordable financing in the future. Since debt settlement hurts your credit and you’ll likely have to pay legal fees, she says it should be considered a last resort.

Is a recession looming on the horizon?

When wondering if we are headed for an economic downturn, it is important to understand how the term “recession” is defined. By definition, the National Bureau of Economic Analysis (NBEA) considers a recession to be two consecutive quarters of economic decline in gross domestic product (GDP). However, in practice, most financial experts tend to take a broader view, looking at declines in activity across the economy as a whole.

The NBEA shared in its latest analysis that the GDP fell by 1.4% in the first quarter of 2022, leaving many to suspect that a recession could be in the cards. For example, a new Deutsche Bank report predicts a recession by the end of 2023 and analysts at Fannie Mae recently released a similar forecast.

Nevertheless, it is important to remember that predictions are only educated guesses and may not turn out to be correct or provide a complete picture of what will happen.

As Kirchenbauer points out, “The problem is that [the GDP] is a lagging indicator. We won’t know we’re in a recession until it’s already upon us. So it’s even more crucial to take stock of your finances and think about the impact a recession could have on you.

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What is the thickest (and thinnest) layer of the Earth? https://biofera.org/what-is-the-thickest-and-thinnest-layer-of-the-earth/ Mon, 16 May 2022 17:30:11 +0000 https://biofera.org/what-is-the-thickest-and-thinnest-layer-of-the-earth/

If you were to embark on a journey to the center of the Earth in the style of the classic Jules Verne sci-fi novel, you wouldn’t stumble upon a herd of behemoths or a hidden sea where the plesiosaur swims free. You would come across such high temperatures and such intense pressure that you would die long before you reached your goal: In fact, the the deepest we’ve never drilled on Earth is only about 7.6 miles away.

But thanks in large part to seismic waves transmitted during earthquakes, scientists were able to map the unexplored interior of the Earth. The planet is divided into four layers: the crust, the mantle, the outer core and the inner core. The top layer – the crust– is the thinnest, with an average thickness of about 19 miles underground and only about 3 miles thick under the ocean. That said, it can reach nearly 50 miles deep on land in some places.

The lower parts of the crust combine with the upper layer of the upper coat to form what is called the lithosphere, where the tectonic plates are found. Beneath this is the mantle asthenosphere, then the lower mantle, then another combination layer between the lower mantle and the outer core that scientists call D” (pronounced “D double prime”). In total, the mantle is Earth’s thickest layer, with an average radius of around 1800 miles, although again this varies by location.

layers of the earth

The rings are not as distinct in real life. /nutnai/iStock via Getty Images

The mantle consists of mostly solid rocks, and most of these rocks are silicon-oxygen compounds known as silicates. Olivine and garnet are two major players in this category. Non-silicate elements include iron, potassium, calcium, etc. It’s also extremely hot in the mantle, with temperatures ranging from around 1830°F to nearly 6700°F.

Beneath the mantle is the outer about 1370 miles thick heart, composed mainly of liquid nickel and iron. And, finally, the inner core: a sphere of solid iron (among other things) with a radius of nearly 760 miles. At over 9300°F, the inner core is certainly hot enough to melt that iron, but it’s not. Scientists believe that the pressure exerted on the core by all the layers above (and the atmosphere) can keep the iron in solid form.

If you add the inner and outer core mileage together, it’s technically more than the mantle. But since the two are generally considered separate layers, the mantle is most often cited as Earth’s thickest slice.