Lithosphere

Semi-brittle seismic deformation in the high temperature mantle mylonite shear zone along the Romanche transform fault

Abstract Ocean transformation faults, a key component of plate tectonics, represent first-order discontinuities along mid-ocean ridges, host large earthquakes, and induce extreme thermal gradients in the lithosphere. However, the thermal structure along transformation faults and its effects on generating earthquakes are poorly understood. We report here the presence of a …

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The four spheres of the earth

The earth can be divided into one of the four main subsystems, namely: earth, water, air and all living things. These categories are called spheres and are the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere, respectively. The first three of these spheres are abiotic, meaning that they are not living things, while …

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Aging satellite reveals Earth’s inner structure

The European Space Agency’s GOCE mission ended more than seven years ago, but scientists are still discovering substantial discoveries from gravity data from the retired satellite – allowing us to dive deep into the interior of the Earth and learn what makes him tick. Scientists have combined GOCE data with …

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A revolution is underway in Earth system science

Photo: USGS. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the earth sciences were primarily used as a tool for exploiting natural resources. Towards the end of this period, industrial production increased 13-fold and energy consumption 16-fold, with a concomitant increase in water consumption by a factor of 7. The resulting industrial …

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