Lithosphere – Biofera Tue, 21 Jun 2022 07:39:43 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Lithosphere – Biofera 32 32 Assessing the environmental impact of nuclear Mon, 20 Jun 2022 06:44:59 +0000

image: Environmental Impact Assessment of Nuclear Power Generation
see After

Credit: Ritsumeikan University

In an ever-changing world, rapid population growth combined with urbanization and industrialization are driving ever-increasing energy demand. The challenge today is to meet these energy needs while controlling global warming, a condition that fossil fuels do not meet. In order to mitigate the environmental degradation and depletion of natural resources associated with the use of fossil fuels, nuclear energy is being promoted as an alternative energy source.

Performing a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of any energy source is important to understand how it affects the environment. Numerous studies have thus evaluated the cumulative energy consumption over the life cycle and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions linked to the electricity produced via nuclear power. However, most of these studies have focused on GHG emissions and the amount of energy consumed, which could lead to a less comprehensive assessment of the environmental impact and sustainability of electricity generated via nuclear energy. . For example, we have not yet understood the total resources used during this process.

In an attempt to provide a more holistic perspective, a group of scientists from Ritsumeikan University, Japan, analyzed the environmental impact of nuclear power generation through a less thoughtful measure – the volume of resources extracted from the lithosphere during the life cycle of this process. Their study focused on the extraction methods, types of nuclear reactors, and type of uranium fuel cycle system used during nuclear power generation, and how these alter the environmental impact. of the process. They also assessed the different grades of mined uranium ore – a highly variable entity – and its effect on the total material requirement (TMR). This article was posted on June 8, 2022 and published in Volume 363 of the Cleaner Production Journal August 20, 2022.

A LCA of resource utilization for uranium-based 1 kWh nuclear power generation was performed by analyzing TMR,” says Associate Professor Shoki Kosai, the corresponding author of the study. “We examined both open and closed fuel cycles and three types of uranium mining methods: surface mining, underground mining and on the spot leaching (ISL), apart from other nuclear power generation variables, for an in-depth LCA.GHG emissions and natural resource use were then assessed for these variables.

Researchers found that the TMR coefficient (indicating extraction intensity) of enriched uranium fuel was the highest, followed by nuclear fuel, reprocessed uranium fuel, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and finally yellow cake. The grade of uranium ore also had a huge impact on the TMR coefficient, which meant that the TMR varied greatly between different mining methods. On the spot leaching had the lowest TMR. However, the extraction method had a greater impact on resource use compared to its impact on GHG emissions.

Discussing the impact of fuel cycles, Professor Eiji Yamasue says:We found that a closed cycle that reprocesses uranium fuel uses 26% fewer resources than an open cycle that does not reuse its by-products.”

In addition, it was found that the use of natural resources of nuclear power generation was similar to that of renewable energy and significantly lower than that of thermal power generation. Furthermore, the global warming potential and the RMR of nuclear power generation showed very different trends. In addition to reducing GHG emissions, nuclear power generation also used fewer natural resources, making it an environmentally friendly source of electricity generation.

Maintaining a circular economy, even for the use of resources, is important. Our findings can help policy makers formulate long-term energy policies that take into account electricity and power generation using nuclear energy,” concludes Dr. Kosai.

Is the future nuclear? It is definitely a possibility!




About Ritsumeikan University, Japan

Ritsumeikan University is one of the most prestigious private universities in Japan. Its main campus is in Kyoto, where inspiring settings await scholars. With an unwavering goal of generating symbiotic social values ​​and emerging talent, it aims to emerge as a next-generation research university. It will strengthen the potential of researchers by offering support best suited to the needs of young researchers and top researchers, depending on their career stage. Ritsumeikan University also strives to build a global research network as a “knowledge node” and disseminate the achievements internationally, thereby contributing to solving social/humanistic problems through interdisciplinary research and to social implementation.


About Associate Professor Shoki Kosai from Ritsumeikan University, Japan

Shoki Kosai is an associate professor at the Global Innovation Research Organization at Ritsumeikan University, Japan. He holds a Masters in Renewable Energy from the University of Malaya, Malaysia. He completed his PhD program at Kyoto University, Japan in 2020. He has 30 publications to his credit. Dr. Kosai’s research focuses on the conservation of natural resources, renewable energy, and creating a cleaner, greener environment. He has presented several papers at the IET Clean Energy and Technology conference.

About Professor Eiji Yamasue from Ritsumeikan University, Japan

Eiji Yamasue is a professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Japan. He completed his PhD from Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2000. His research interests include industrial ecology, energy and resources, etc. He is the author of several books and has published 322 articles with over 1600 citations to his credit. He was the recipient of two science awards in 2017, including Energy and Materials Efficiency and CO2 Reduction in the Steel Industry Best Poster Award. He has received several grants for scientific research as well as competitive grants.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of press releases posted on EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

Early morning earthquake hits Georgia Sat, 18 Jun 2022 11:17:25 +0000

A 3.9 magnitude earthquake shook the town of Stillmore in the US state of Georgia.

According to the United States Geological Survey, tremors could also be felt in nearby Augusta, Macon and Brunswick after the 4 a.m. tremor.

Moderate shaking was reported near the quake’s epicenter just east of the Emanuel County town of 700 people. However, no damage was reported.

Earthquakes of this size are rare for Georgia.

There have only been 10 earthquakes reaching magnitude 3.5 or greater since 1903. The strongest ever recorded in the state was magnitude 4.5 in 1914.

An earthquake is a shaking of the Earth’s surface resulting from a sudden release of energy into the Earth’s lithosphere that creates seismic waves. The little ones occur around the world several hundred times a day.

On Wednesday, a cluster of earthquakes was recorded off the Oregon coast but caused no damage. The largest was magnitude 5.6. On the same day, seven earthquakes were recorded off the Iranian coast. The largest was 5.3 but, again, no damage was done.

In other earthquake news, Southern California’s Metrolink transit system announced this week that it will equip some of its trains with a new alert system that will automatically slow or halt travel during a tremor.

Garden features Plants for making or dyeing clothes Thu, 16 Jun 2022 15:21:19 +0000

Perhaps one of the most fascinating gardens at this year’s Chelsea Flower Show was ‘A Textile Garden for the Fashion Revolution’. Created by a horticulturist Lottie Delamain, this unique garden only had plants that could be used to make or dye clothes. At a time when most of our wardrobes are full of synthetic fabrics and colors, it’s important and refreshing to remember the power of plants to dress us.

“A Textile Garden” enters a new category at last month’s annual flower show called “All About Plants,” which aims to tell stories about plants. Delamain, who was a fashion designer before converting to garden design, is well placed to be this storyteller.

She told Treehugger: “The crossover between these two disciplines has always interested me. While trekking in Vietnam, I met families growing plants to make their clothes and I was so inspired by the closeness between what they grow and what they wear, and how intimately they understood where their clothes came from – a long way from where we are in the west.”

Thanks to funding from Project Giving Back, Delamain chose fashion revolution to be her charity partner, as her #whatsinmyclothes campaign echoed the key message of her garden design. She explained: “The garden was made up entirely of plants that could be used as dye or fiber and designed to look and feel like textiles, with a large-scale textile installation in the garden to illustrate the connection between plants and textiles.”

This was achieved by planting blocks of distinct colors to give the impression of a woven fabric. Shallow reflecting pools were meant to resemble dye baths, some with natural dye-absorbing fibers or fabrics. The plantations were separated by a series of paved “seams” in the ground. The overall goal was to help viewers “reconnect plants and textiles, reveal the beauty of plant dyes and fibers, and sow a seed of curiosity for what we wear”.

Readers may be surprised by the colors given off by some plants. Like Delamain told the Guardian, “Willow does a beautiful pink color, which you wouldn’t expect.” Tulips produce a vivid green. Others make more sense, like marigolds in orange, onion skins in yellow, fennel flower heads in sage green, and cornflower heads in blue.

Dyeing with plants is also not difficult. “You literally get leaves, throw them in a pot, put the T-shirt on and off you go. Some plants are permanent on their own, but for others you add a mordant, which fixes the dye to the clothes. (from the Guardian). This, Delamain said, is really fun and adds interest to an otherwise generic garment. “You’ve invested time in dyeing your own top, you have a little story about it and it’s so nice. A little more interesting than just buying something from Zara.”

Britt Willoughby Dyer

Treehugger has previously written about the terrible environmental impact of conventional textile production and dyeing methods. The fashion industry accounts for just under 35% of global microplastic pollution, with around 700,000 microfibers released with every load of laundry. Despite this, only 21% of fashion brands have a concrete plan to reduce microfiber pollution. This, of course, could be partly mitigated by consumers shunning synthetic fabrics and opting for natural fabrics like linen, as Delamain’s garden exemplifies.

As for dyeing, 25% of the chemicals produced in the world are used to make clothes, and many of them are used to dye fabrics. An estimated 60-70% of dyes contain heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, tin, cobalt, lead, and chromium, and various energy-intensive processes are required to attach these dyes to the material. Any molecules that are not fixed are released into waterways, creating visible pollution in many rivers, especially in Asia, where communities suffer from the effects of exposure to these chemicals.

As with microplastics, brand efforts to address this issue are minimal. A press release provided to Treehugger states: “More than 15,000 chemicals may be used during the textile manufacturing process, from raw materials to dyeing and finishing, yet only 30% of brands disclose their commitment to eliminate ‘use of dangerous chemicals in our clothes.’

We asked Delamain how we got here, how the transition from natural dyes to harmful synthetic dyes happened. She explained:

“Synthetic dyes have been around for about 150 years, starting with William Henry Perkin in 1856 who accidentally synthesized a purple dye while trying to make quinine. However, it wasn’t until 50 years from now that synthetic dyes became industrialized and widespread, as well as the discovery of synthetic fibers like nylon that were more difficult to dye with natural dyes.It was widely used by industrialists like Thomas Wardle, who collaborated with William Morris, during the height of the Arts & Crafts.

When asked if natural dyes were a realistic option for commercial production, Delamain said yes, they could be. “We are aware of various commercial studios that practice natural dyeing commercially, for example, Cloth Collective, which recently collaborated with Edward Bulmer Paints and Anna Mason London.”

There may be less consistency in the appearance of natural dyes, but Delamain doesn’t see that as a deterrent. “There is color variation, which can be approached in two ways. Either celebrate it! Or experienced dye masters like Kate Turnbull, who is head of the studio at Cloth, have the knowledge to mitigate it. On a commercial scale, consistency is achieved with very strict and detailed dye recipes.”

Mordants are substances necessary to fix the dyes on the fabrics in order to prevent them from washing out. Even these can be eco-friendly. Delamain recommended several natural mordants, including soybeans, rhubarb leaves, oak galls, staghorn sumac leaves.

“There’s a huge growing community of dyers and creatives with so much energy and expertise working in this area right now, it’s so exciting to see,” she told Treehugger. “What I’d like to see is for a university to take research into natural dyes to take it to the next level – find a way to synthesize natural dyes the same way they did compounds natural products used in the pharmaceutical industry, so that they can be deployed on a much larger scale.”

In the meantime, her textile garden at the flower show has surely done a lot to educate visitors about what’s possible in their own gardens. A press release describes the garden’s goals as (a) helping people feel inspired by the many plants that can be used to make natural dyes and fibers, (b) encouraging them to try DIY dyeing at home. house or even create a mini dye garden, and (c) having them think about what plants they do or don’t carry and asking them #whatsinmyclothes? Clearly, the approach worked, as the garden won a silver medal at the show this year.

Delamain’s dream of continuing research will come true, as the Textile Garden is transferred to Headington School in Oxford, where Kate Turnbull, the aforementioned expert dyer and head of fashion and textile design, has developed a new curriculum for the ‘utilize. In a article for the fashion revolutionTurnbull explained, “[The garden] will become a permanent feature of the school and will also have a working dye garden where students can source dye materials for the Eco Textiles course and learn about gardening.”

In a time when more and more people are asking where their food comes from, it makes sense that they’re starting to wonder where their clothes come from. These also exist in close contact with our bodies for long periods of time and have a large environmental footprint. Like food, it is possible to choose clothes that do less harm to the world. To quote Rebecca Burgess from fiber shed, a US-based organization that champions local fiber systems, “Fashion is an agricultural choice.” Every time you buy something, you choose between biosphere (agricultural production) or lithosphere (the earth’s crust that provides fossil fuels for synthetics).

Delamain’s textile garden reminds us of the same thing: there are far better, healthier and prettier options for dressing ourselves than the cheap plastic clothes on sale everywhere we look. Choose wisely. Think about plants.

Extraction And Refining: Helium | Hackaday Wed, 15 Jun 2022 17:00:00 +0000

With a seemingly endless list of commodity shortages roaming the newsfeeds daily, you’d be forgiven for not noticing one shortage in particular. But amid shortages of everything from eggs to fertilizer to sriracha sauce, there’s a growing awareness that we may be missing something so fundamental that it could have repercussions that will be felt in all aspects of our technological society: helium.

It’s hard to overstate how central helium is to almost every aspect of daily life. The unique properties of helium, such as the fact that it remains liquid at a few degrees above absolute zero, contribute to its use in countless industrial processes. From leak detection and soldering to producing silicon wafers and cooling the superconducting magnets that make magnetic resonance imaging possible, helium has entrenched itself in technology in a way that belies its relative rarity. .

But where does helium come from? As we will see, the second lightest element in the periodic table is not easy to find, and considerable effort is required to extract and purify it sufficiently for industrial use. While great strides are being made towards improving extraction methods and discovering new deposits, for all intents and purposes helium is a non-renewable resource for which there is no substitute. So it pays to know a thing or two about how we get our hands on it.

A product of decomposition

Despite being the second most abundant element in the visible universe, helium is surprisingly rare on Earth. While it was first discovered in spectrographs of the sun and other stars in the 1860s, getting enough helium to study and determine it to be an element would take another 30 years, when a gas with the same spectral signature was released by dissolving a sample of uranium ore in acid.

Uranium decay series. When U-238 decays to Th-234 (top left), it releases an alpha particle, which is a helium nucleus. The particle quickly captures two electrons, creating a new helium atom. Source: Tosaka, CC BY 3.0via Wikimedia Commons

The discovery of helium on Earth came at an opportune time in the history of chemistry. The late 1800s and early 1900s saw interest in chemistry expand from reactions involving atoms as a whole to the subatomic realm, at the level of the electrons, protons, and neutrons that make up atoms. Radioactivity had just begun to be explored and the existence of alpha, beta and gamma rays was already known when helium was first isolated. So when Rutherford and Boyd discovered that alpha rays are actually particles made up of two protons and two neutrons, which is identical to the nucleus of a helium atom, they immediately suggested a mechanism for how the helium managed to get trapped in the uranium ore.

Like all heavy radioactive elements, uranium decays along a specific series of elements. The Uranium series begins with the isotope 238U, the natural and relatively abundant isotope of uranium. 238U has a half-life of about 4 billion years, and when it decays it does so by releasing an alpha particle. The loss of a pair of protons and a pair of neutrons transforms the 238U in 234Th, or thorium-234. The liberated alpha particle, which is actually a helium nucleus, readily absorbs two electrons when absorbed by just about any matter it is in, creating a helium atom.

This perfectly explains why the helium was inside this sample of uranium ore – over time the decay of the uranium released alpha particles which were absorbed by the rock, gaining the necessary electrons to become helium atoms. The helium built up over time, collecting in the pores of the rock, only to be released when the minerals in the rock were finally dissolved. And this same process, albeit on a geological scale, is the key to the industrial production of helium.

A gas within a gas

Unlike most industrial gases, helium is not present in the atmosphere in any significant concentration. Any helium that is not somehow sequestered after it is produced will end up in the atmosphere and be quickly lost, rising rapidly into the upper atmosphere and eventually into space. It is therefore impractical to isolate helium from air as we do with oxygen, nitrogen, argon and other gases. Instead, we have to search beneath our feet for large reservoirs of helium.

Fortunately, the same geological conditions that tend to trap natural gas in underground reservoirs also tend to trap helium, and natural gas wells are therefore the greatest source of helium. Historically, the United States has been the main supplier of helium to world markets, with most coming from natural gas wells in Oklahoma, Kansas and Texas. Here, the gas coming out of the ground contains up to 7% helium, which is more than enough for profitable extraction.

Natural gas is a mixture of methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and higher gaseous alkanes like ethane and propane. When a sufficient amount of helium is mixed – anything above 0.4% is considered profitable – the extraction and purification of helium is carried out by fractional distillation. Helium has the lowest boiling point of all the elements, which means all other gases can be isolated by lowering the temperature and controlling the pressure.

The first step in producing helium is to clean up any CO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) natural gas. This is done in an amine treatment, where the chemical monoethanolamine (MEA) is sprayed into the gas stream inside a reaction vessel. MEA ionizes acidic compounds and makes them water soluble, allowing them to be scrubbed from natural gas. The scrubbed gas is then pretreated by passing it through a molecular sieve, such as zeolite, and a bed of activated carbon, to remove water vapor and any heavier hydrocarbons.

H Padlekas, CC-BY-3.0

" data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" loading="lazy" class="size-medium wp-image-539696" class="lazyload" data-sizes="auto" data-srcset=" 75w, 100w, 150w, 240w, 320w, 500w, 640w, 800w, 1024w, 1280w, 1600w" data-src="" alt="" width="217" height="319" srcset=" 217w,,250 170w" sizes="(max-width: 217px) 100vw, 217px"/>
Diagram of a generic industrial distillation process. Source: H PadlekasCC-BY-3.0

What remains after these pretreatment steps is mainly methane and nitrogen, but also neon and helium. The gas is cooled by passing it through a heat exchanger and then through an expansion valve into a baffled fractionator. The sudden drop in pressure lowers the temperature of the gas enough for the methane, which boils at -161.5°C, to condense into a liquid and flow to the bottom of the column.

The remaining gas, now mostly nitrogen and helium, passes through a condenser which further cools the stream. When the temperature of the mixture drops below -195.8°C, the nitrogen condenses in liquid form. Along with liquid methane, liquid nitrogen is routed to heat exchangers that were originally used to cool the incoming pretreated process gas. The now gaseous nitrogen and methane, both valuable, are routed to storage tanks.

About half of the remaining process gas is helium, the rest being a mixture of contaminating methane and nitrogen, with some hydrogen and neon. This mixture is called cold raw helium and must now undergo further purification to reach the level of purity required for industrial use. Purification begins with another heat exchanger that drops the raw helium mixture below the boiling point of nitrogen, to condense the remaining nitrogen and methane contaminants. This step brings the raw helium to about 90% purity.

Final cleansing

To get rid of hydrogen, oxygen is introduced and the mixture is heated in the presence of a catalyst. Hydrogen and oxygen form water, which can be separated from the process gas stream before it is directed to final purification by pressure swing adsorption, or PSA. Pressure swing adsorption is the same process used in oxygen concentrators, including many DIY versions we’ve seen in response to COVID-19. PSA uses the ability of materials known as molecular sieves to selectively adsorb gas. In helium purification, the 90% pure gas is pumped into a pressure vessel containing a molecular sieve, usually zeolite. The contaminating gases are preferentially adsorbed in the zeolite, leaving the helium exit stream almost pure. When the first column is saturated with contaminants, the flow is switched to a second column which had been previously regenerated by flushing it with pure helium. The gas flow alternates between the two columns, one purifying the helium while the other is regenerated. The result is Grade A helium gas at 99.995% purity.

The process described here is by no means the only way to extract helium from natural gas, but it does represent the most common way to produce the gas, primarily because most of the pretreatment and initial purification steps are already used to process natural gas as a fuel. and as a raw material for the chemical industry. Other methods include a fully PSA process, which can use natural gas with a helium concentration of only 0.06%, and membrane separation, which relies on the fact that helium can penetrate a semi-permeable membrane much more easily than methane molecules and much larger nitrogen. Membrane separation technology can be much more energy efficient than traditional fractional distillation because it does not require phase changes and the energy they require.

But are we short?

Knowing the abundance of uranium 238 in the terrestrial lithosphere as well as its half-life, it is possible to estimate the quantity of helium produced by the radiogenic process. It turns out that’s not much – only about 3,000 metric tons per year. And almost all of that escapes into the atmosphere and into space. So, similar to the natural gas in which it is usually found, helium is effectively a non-renewable resource.

But does that mean we’re running out of it? Yes, like any other finite resource, we will eventually extract whatever there is to extract. But that doesn’t necessarily mean we’ve found all the helium there is to find. Exploration has led to new deposits in the United States and massive discoveries of helium in places like Algeria, which became the world’s second largest helium producer in the early 2000s. Qatar has also made a huge discovery of helium in 2013, which propelled it to second place in the world. These discoveries, along with the recent discovery of natural gas wells in South Africa containing up to 12% helium, promise to address some of the concerns about the loss of access to this irreplaceable gas.

But in the end, these new discoveries only push back the clock and prevent the inevitable day when helium will finally run out. We might pause if ever commercial-scale fusion becomes a thing, but that breakthrough has only been “twenty years away” in the last 80 years.

IMD DG Mrutyunjay Mohapatra at CSIR-NIScPR Mon, 13 Jun 2022 08:35:32 +0000

Climate change leads to an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. While India’s forecasting and early warning system is excellent at predicting large-scale severe weather, small-scale weather events like thunderstorms and lightning pose a challenge.

The Director General (DG) of Meteorology at Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Dr. Mrutyunjay Mohapatra shared this on the occasion of World Environment Day (WED) at the Indian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. National Institute for Science Communication and Policy Research (CSIR-NIScPR).

Deliver the WED conference on June 6, Dr Mohapatra said that “small scale extreme weather events like thunderstorms, lightning are increasing”. He said that while the number of deaths from cyclones has dropped significantly, the number of deaths from lightning is on the rise. “Every year, about 3,000 people die from lightning.”

Small-scale weather events are therefore firmly on the weather radar. “The priority now is to target not only large-scale weather systems, but also small-scale weather systems,” Dr Mohapatra said.

When it comes to India’s early warning system in general, “India is second to none,” said the DG of IMD.

Dr. Mohapatra is affectionately known as ‘India’s Cyclone Man’ for his cyclone forecasting and early warning prowess, which is said to have helped minimize the loss of life during many cyclones. He heads the cyclone warning division of the IMD.

In his lecture on June 6, he made a timely and necessary reminder that we human beings are also part of the environment, even if it does not appear to be so. “When you talk about the environment, we certainly feel like we’re not part of it. It’s something that surrounds all of us. But we’re also part of the environment,” he said.

He explained that while comfort has increased at the individual level over the decades, the environment has deteriorated. “Comfort is not sustainable. It becomes threatened by changes in the environment,” he said.

Engineers Conduct Experiment on How Fault Boundaries Can Lead to Major Earthquakes Wed, 08 Jun 2022 05:33:36 +0000

Caltech engineers have provided substantial experimental evidence of a kind of seismic dispersion currently believed to be responsible for the magnitude 9.0 earthquake that destroyed the Japanese coast in 2011.

Limits of faults leading to major earthquakes

(Photo: CHRISTIAN MIRANDA/AFP via Getty Images)

Fine-grained gravel occurs along fault lines as they rub against each other.

Caltech researchers have illustrated in a new report published in the journal Nature on June 1 that tiny gravels, known as rock gouges, initially stop the spread of earthquakes but later trigger seismic revival, resulting in severe breakups.

According to Vito Rubino, researcher and lead author of the study, the innovative experimental technique allowed them to look closely at the seismic process and identify the critical elements of fracture propagation and friction growth in the gouge. rocky, according to ScienceDaily.

Due to the activation of co-seismic processes of frictional attenuation, fault sections once thought to function as barriers against dynamic failure may in fact host earthquakes, according to their findings.

Rubino and his co-authors Nadia Lapusta, Lawrence A. Hanson, Jr., Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Geophysics, and Ares Rosakis, Theodore von Kármán Professor of Aeronautics and Mechanical Engineering, demonstrated in the article that what Called “stable” or “creeping” faults are not immune to major ruptures after all, as previously thought.

Such faults form when tectonic plates slowly slide past each other without causing large earthquakes, like the San Andreas Fault in central California, which is now creeping.

To create an earthquake simulation, the team first cut a meter-sized piece of translucent homalite in half.

Dynamic fracture nucleation can occur in samples as small as tens of centimeters in diameter, whereas rock samples would require tens of meters.

The scientists then applied massive pressure and shear to both sides of the Homalite, simulating tectonic pressure along a fault line.

Fine-grained quartz powder was used as a substitute for the fault gouge between the pieces.

The scientists then connected the two sections with a short-wire fuse, which served as the “epicenter” of the earthquake.

Read also : Experts study ‘largest earthquake in human history’

Plate boundaries

The majority of earthquakes are caused by movement in small areas along plate boundaries, according to California Academy.

The majority of seismic activity occurs along plate boundaries that are divergent, convergent, or transformed.

When the plates cross, they can get stuck and generate considerable pressure.

The energy is released in the form of seismic waves when the plates eventually give way and slide, due to excessive pressure, causing the earth to shake.

When two tectonic plates move away from each other, it is called spreading.

New crust forms when molten mantle rock bursts along the hole.

These expanding centers, or earthquakes, are usually mild. The Great Rift Valley in Africa, the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden were formed by the movement of the divergence plates.

When the plates move towards each other and collide, it is called convergence.

Whenever a continental plate collides with an oceanic lithosphere, the thinner, denser, more flexible oceanic plate sinks beneath the thicker, stiffer continental plate.

Subduction is the term for it.

Subduction creates deep ocean trenches, like the one off the coast of South America, where rocks from the continent are torn away.

Related article: Earthquakes swarm in Florence, Italy, as people report tremors since early May

© 2022 All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

Telefnica SA: Space technology against climate change Mon, 06 Jun 2022 14:02:11 +0000

A problem that affects all countries and all economies. As the UN warns of changing weather systems, sea levels and extreme weather events, the scientific community is developing space technology to combat climate change.

During the first half of November 2021, the Conference of the Parties or COP26 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, known as the Climate Summit, was held in Glasgow. Although it started with great ambitions, the drop in expectations at the negotiating table has been frustrating for much of society.

However, technology initiatives that various organizations have been undertaking for some time now, bring some hope to the plight of the planet. The persistent drought in Spain, for example, is just as worrying as that experienced in California. As has the loss of extensive forests due to fires in recent years in the US state, also linked to climate change.

Projects from NASA and private sector companies, such as AccuWeather, are applying the technology to study the risks of climate change. The objective of the consulting firm is to help predict adverse and extreme events, which over time become more frequent, minimizing business losses. In the meantime, the US Agency for Aerospace Research’s goal is to share accumulated knowledge for solutions that will contribute to better decision-making.

Studying the Earth’s Climate Systems from Space

As part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA scientists and California state officials work together. Trying to apply satellite data, new laser and radar technologies, and 3D imagery to Earth’s changing climate systems. The aim is to obtain sufficient data for scientific solutions and apply the expertise of space technologies against climate change and global warming.

California is primarily hit by these problems, which result in persistent droughts, unusually hot summers, and loss of vegetation due to an increase in destructive wildfires.

For these reasons, the Agency was study Mars, with the same intensity as our planet, to find solutions to our environmental problems. The Agency aims to get a more accurate picture of what is happening in the lithosphere, oceans and atmosphere. He will implement new tools to measure key aspects, such as the evolution of eternal snow and the state of groundwater.

New technologies at the service of water

The OpenET platform was created to provide farmers, water managers and all forestry professionals with evapotranspiration data collected by NASA for over 20 years. It is intended to accelerate optimization of water management.

Evapotranspiration is a fundamental measure of the amount of water resources used by a given agricultural crop. In this way, supply and demand can be balanced and significant savings achieved.

It’s not the only tool. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is a satellite that measures lakes and rivers to better understand the water cycle for optimization.

Earth monitoring satellites

With the contribution of satellite data, new tools make it possible to monitor methane gas emissions in the atmosphere, the second cause of global warming. The Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite also collects information from other sources. This tool can also track atmospheric methane emissions from a refinery or animal farm.

This way, oil and gas industries can monitor their own environmental impactbe transparent about their oil and gas emissions and provide information to investors and users.

The NISAR satellite, equipped with two radars intended for the study of glaciers and volcanoes, is to be launched in 2022. It is designed to observe the evolution of the earth’s surface, as well as to allow the observation of forests and their evolutions from the carbon dioxide they contain, or other processes.

Space technology against climate change and risk prevention

Companies also have a great interest in knowing how climate change may affect them. With Climate Ready Risk Mitigation, created by AccuWeather, they can predict weather events for long-term business planning, as well as assess actions taken to avoid losses from weather-related natural disasters.

This tool also helps to identify specific negative risks. Help them increase security in the most vulnerable areas and the adaptability of the supply chain. The ultimate goal is to avoid millions of dollars in losses from persistent floods or droughts, which increase over time.

Undoubtedly, these technological initiatives offer hope for possible solutions to the climate crisis in which the planet is plunged.

Santa Clarita student lands internship with NASA Fri, 03 Jun 2022 23:15:04 +0000

A Santa Clarita High School student finished the 2022 school year ready to pursue discovery beyond Earth’s surface — with a coveted nationwide NASA summer internship.

Katelyn Waugh, a student at Trinity Classical Academy in Santa Clarita, is one of 1,100 students who applied for the STEM Enhancement in Earth and Space Science held at the University of Texas at the Center for Space Research of Austin, and was among 92 nominees from around the world who were selected.

“We strive to understand Earth’s atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere as a single, connected system,” read a NASA statement. “Our planet is changing on all spatial and temporal scales. The goal of NASA’s Earth Science program is to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural or human-induced changes, and to improve the prediction of climate, weather, and hazard. natural.

The nationally coveted program, sponsored by NASA’s Texas Space Grant Consortium, selects students with a passion for science, technology, engineering and mathematics to work alongside scientists and engineers in a quest for discovery beyond the face of the earth.

About the intern

Through a program that analyzes both Earth and space, Waugh plans to conduct authentic research using data received from NASA’s Earth observation satellites, while designing Mars habitats, expanding the lunar exploration and analyzing images from the International Space Station, according to NASA.

During the two week programthe student-athlete must conduct hands-on activities, field investigations, attend NASA-led presentations, and work on various NASA missions.

The 16-year-old Trinity Classical Academy basketball and tennis player has a history of accomplishment, especially with her work winning a Silver Award for Santa Clarita Girl Scout Troop 186 in a project which attracted media attention during the 2020 fire season.

While making progress in her athletic and educational goals, the internship at NASA is Waugh’s next step in reaching her desired potential as a student and researcher.

“The SEES internship proves that the enthusiasm students feel for space science is a critical step in enriching science, math, engineering, and technology,” reads an internship description from The NASA. “The internship will provide students with the rare – and for the most part, unique – opportunity to spend two weeks working with professional scientists and engineers at the forefront of space exploration.”

************************************************** ********************************************

This story is brought to you by friends of the California Credit Union.

California Credit Union is a trusted partner of the education community and a proud sponsor of KHTS Education Corner, KHTS Sacramento Road Trip, SCV Education Foundation and WiSH Education Foundation to support programs that directly help students and teachers throughout the Santa Clarita Valley. The California Credit Union is a state-chartered, federally insured credit union founded in 1933 that serves public and private school employees, community members, and businesses throughout California. The California Credit Union offers a full suite of consumer, business and investment products and services, including exclusive services for school employees, comprehensive consumer verification and loan options, personalized financial planning, business banking and advanced online and mobile banking. For more information, contact Mariam Nasiry, School and Community Development Manager at You can also visit our local Valencia branch located at 24343 Magic Mountain Pkwy., Santa Clarita, CA 91355, or one of our 25 locations in Southern California. Learn more about California Credit Union at and follow the credit union on Instagram® or Facebook® @CaliforniaCreditUnion. Ready to open an account today? Click here to apply!

Do you have any current advice? Call us at (661) 298-1220 or email Don’t miss a thing. Get the latest KHTS Santa Clarita News alerts straight to your inbox. Report a typo or error, email

KHTS FM 98.1 and AM 1220 is Santa Clarita’s only local radio station. KHTS mixes a combination of news, traffic, sports and features with your favorite adult contemporary hits. Santa Clarita News and Features are broadcast throughout the day on our airwaves, on our website and on various social media platforms. Our KHTS award-winning daily newsletters are now read daily by over 34,000 residents. A vibrant member of the Santa Clarita community, the KHTS broadcast signal reaches throughout the Santa Clarita Valley and parts of the high desert communities located in Antelope Valley. The station webcasts its talk shows, reaching potentially global audiences. Follow @KHTSRadio on Facebook, Twitterand instagram.

New mapping technology to discover Earth’s resources Fri, 03 Jun 2022 13:23:17 +0000

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public domain

For years, scientists have tried to understand the structure of the Earth. One such scientist is University of Twente geophysicist Dr. Juan Carlos Afonso (ITC Faculty). He recently developed a new method for analyzing the Earth’s continental crust that lays the foundation for predicting geothermal energy sources, but also other critical resources for Earth and other planets. He published his research in the scientific journal nature geoscience.

To minimize the impact of natural hazards and support the transition to green energy technologies, it is fundamental to understand the functioning of the continental lithosphere – the outer part of the Earth – and to predict the location of geothermal energy and mineral resources. Normally, Earth scientists examine one aspect of the Earth’s crust at a time using specific data sets. But it is both the chemical structure of the crust and the small temperature differences that tell geoscientists about the origin and evolution of the planet and the location of the resources beneath our feet. However, combining multiple datasets for this purpose remains a major challenge.

In his research, Afonso managed to formally combine several satellite datasets with terrestrial datasets to see further into the Earth than before. “It’s a whole new way to ‘see’ what’s underneath,” says Afonso. Previously, the only reliable approach to deep resource exploration was the analysis of rock samples brought to the surface by volcanoes (called “xenoliths”). “When you are dependent on volcanoes, you can imagine that such samples are hard to find. They are dispersed in space and time and still have large uncertainties,” says Afonso.

The research team focused on central and southern Africa. The Kalahari, Tanzania and Congo cratons, old and stable parts of the Earth’s upper two layers, have proven useful in the region. “Central and Southern Africa is a natural laboratory that helps us answer fundamental questions about craton formation,” says Afonso, “and there are many datasets of these necessary xenoliths that have helped us prove our method. “.

“This study demonstrated that our method of combining terrestrial and satellite datasets works. We can now extend the search to regions where xenoliths are not available,” says Afonso. According to the researchers, this approach adds to the development of next-generation planetary models and supports the development of cleaner technologies. It lays the groundwork for innovative resource exploration frameworks for Earth, but also for other terrestrial planets. “Perhaps Mars and/or the Moon could be next.”

More information:
Juan C. Afonso et al, Thermochemical Structure and Evolution of the Cratonic Lithosphere in Central and Southern Africa, nature geoscience (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-022-00929-y

Provided by the University of Twente

Quote: New Mapping Technology to Discover Earth’s Resources (June 3, 2022) Retrieved June 3, 2022 from

This document is subject to copyright. Except for fair use for purposes of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without written permission. The content is provided for information only.

Tectonic link of the northeast edge of the Indian plate with the Assam earthquake of 1950: study Wed, 01 Jun 2022 18:33:13 +0000 House ” General ” Environment ” Tectonic link of the northeast edge of the Indian plate with the Assam earthquake of 1950: study

New Delhi, June 1 (SocialNews.XYZ) Indian plate subduction stops north of 27N latitude and indentation process is responsible for seismicity in region linked to 1950 Assam earthquake (magnitude 8.6), study finds .

The study also suggested that the Indo-Burma Range (IBR) is more susceptible to deeper earthquakes, while crustal scale earthquakes are more likely to occur in the eastern Himalayan syntax ( EHS).

The Eastern Himalayan Syntax (EHS) on the eastern foothills of Arunachal Pradesh and adjoining regions of Assam is recognized as one of the most seismically active regions in the world.

The northeast corner of the Indian plate in the EHS belongs to seismic zone V of the national zoning map of India and has the potential to trigger major earthquakes in the future.

The researchers analyzed seismic data recorded by the local broadband seismograph network as well as data from the International Seismological Center catalog for seismicity in the northeast fringe of the Indian Plate in the EHS (Tidding-Tuting Suture) and adjacent areas.

The study published in Tectonophysics Journal also found that the Tidding-Tuting Suture Zone is seismically active down to about 40 km depth. Another major finding is that the Mishmi, Tidding and Lohit thrusts are steeply dipping thrust faults while the Walong fault is a strike-slip fault with a minor thrust component. (All places in Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh).

“The TTSZ is seismically active down to about 40 km depth. In contrast, seismicity in the Indo-Burma Ranges (IBR) is observed down to a depth of about 200 km, suggesting active subduction (a term borrowed from oceanography, which refers to the converging-margin tectonic process by which slabs of oceanic lithosphere descend into the mantle) Indian plate process below the IBR This suggests that the IBR is more sensitive to deeper earthquakes, while crustal scale earthquakes are more likely to occur in the TTSZ,” the study states.

This research suggests that the subduction process terminates north of about 270 N latitude and that the indentation process of the rigid Indian plate in Southeast Asia primarily controls seismicity north of the IBR.

“This seismic structure forms a complex tectonics, which produced the Great Assam earthquake in 1950 and could create tension for a future earthquake. The Great Assam earthquake is the largest earthquake in intracontinental land ever recorded,” he said.

Unlike several studies conducted in the EHS and the adjoining SE Tibetan Plateau, the northeast fringe of the Indian Plate in the EHS (TTSZ) is extremely understudied to understand seismogenesis and its tectonic linkage.

A team led by Dr Devajit Hazarika from the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology, has established 11 broadband seismic stations in the Lohit valley and eight stations in the Siang window of ‘Arunachal Himalayas for information on moderate and micro earthquakes in the region.

The results reveal that the closely spaced Mishmi, Tidding and Lohit faults along the Lohit and Dibang river valleys in eastern Arunachal Pradesh are steeply dipping thrust sheets that accommodate great crustal shortening. due to the indentation process and clockwise rotational tectonics.

The Walong Fault in the upper Lohit River Valley in Arunachal Pradesh is characterized by strike-slip movement with a thrust component that facilitates clockwise rotation of crustal material around the syntax.

Source: IANS

Tectonic link of the northeast edge of the Indian plate with the Assam earthquake of 1950: study

About Gopi

Gopi Adusumilli is a programmer. He is the editor of SocialNews.XYZ and president of AGK Fire Inc.

He enjoys designing websites, developing mobile apps and publishing news articles from various authenticated news sources.

As for writing, he enjoys writing about current world politics and Indian movies. His future plans include developing SocialNews.XYZ into a news website that has no bias or judgment towards any.

He can be reached at