Lithosphere – Biofera http://biofera.org/ Thu, 10 Jun 2021 19:30:51 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.7.2 https://biofera.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/biofera-icon-150x150.png Lithosphere – Biofera http://biofera.org/ 32 32 Hydrogen enrichment after fusion in the oceanic lithosphere https://biofera.org/hydrogen-enrichment-after-fusion-in-the-oceanic-lithosphere/ https://biofera.org/hydrogen-enrichment-after-fusion-in-the-oceanic-lithosphere/#respond Wed, 09 Jun 2021 18:00:35 +0000 https://biofera.org/hydrogen-enrichment-after-fusion-in-the-oceanic-lithosphere/

Abstract

The wide range of H2The O contents recorded in the minerals of the exhumed mantle rocks have been difficult to interpret, as they often record a combination of melting, metasomatism and diffusion processes in spatially isolated samples. Here we determine the temporal variations of H2O content in pyroxenes from a 24 Ma time series of abyssal peridotites exposed along the Vema fracture zone (Atlantic Ocean). The H2O contents of pyroxenes correlate with crustal ages and pyroxene chemistry and increase towards younger, more refractory peridotites. These variations are inconsistent with the post-melting residuals and opposed to trends often observed in mantle xenoliths. Hydrogen enrichment after melting occurred by ion diffusion during cryptic metasomatism of peridotite residues by low-level volatile-rich melts and was particularly effective in the more depleted peridotites. The presence of hydric melting under the ridges results in a generalized incorporation of hydrogen into the oceanic lithosphere, probably reducing the viscosity of the mantle compared to dry models.


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Pieces of oceanic crust are stuck in the earth’s mantle https://biofera.org/pieces-of-oceanic-crust-are-stuck-in-the-earths-mantle/ https://biofera.org/pieces-of-oceanic-crust-are-stuck-in-the-earths-mantle/#respond Wed, 09 Jun 2021 11:02:31 +0000 https://biofera.org/pieces-of-oceanic-crust-are-stuck-in-the-earths-mantle/

In Geology 101, the interior of the Earth is divided into neat layers, like a sugar-coated puzzle. But it turns out that parts of the planet’s middle layer might look more like peanuts in a sea of ​​caramel. Seismic data reveals that there may be chunks of oceanic crust stuck deep in the planet’s liquid mantle, creating large chunks in one of those smooth layers.

The authors of a new study have discovered these “peanut chunks” inside the gooey mantle under East Asia. Their findings, in addition to being deliciously intriguing, could have implications for models of oceanic crustal formation and movement.


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CUPB celebrated World Oceans Day by hosting webinar and international quiz https://biofera.org/cupb-celebrated-world-oceans-day-by-hosting-webinar-and-international-quiz/ https://biofera.org/cupb-celebrated-world-oceans-day-by-hosting-webinar-and-international-quiz/#respond Tue, 08 Jun 2021 12:18:48 +0000 https://biofera.org/cupb-celebrated-world-oceans-day-by-hosting-webinar-and-international-quiz/

BATHINDA: The Department of Botany at Central University of the Punjab, Bathinda (CUPB) celebrated World Oceans Day by hosting a webinar on “The Oceans of Planet Earth: Its Flywheel” and an international quiz. The theme of the Oceans Day celebrations was “Ocean Life and Livelihoods”. The program’s guest speaker was Professor Vinod Kumar Gaur, winner of the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize (1979) and former secretary of the Indian Government’s Ministry of Earth Sciences. This program was part of the United Nations World Oceans Day celebrations.

At first, Dr Felix Bast, HoD, Dept. of Botany welcomed the participants. During the keynote speaker presentation, Dr Bast mentioned that Professor Vinod Kumar Gaur is a world renowned seismologist and the first person to use GPS to calibrate the speed of the Indian tectonic plate moving towards the plate. Eurasian.

Professor Vinod Kumar Gaur mentioned that the Earth’s ocean acts as its flywheel as it circulates large reservoirs of energy and minerals and helps stabilize the temperature by absorbing large amounts of heat. He highlighted how the oceans open up vast avenues for economic exploration, including rare earth minerals. He also discussed the role of ocean conveyor belts, caused by thermohaline currents in the deep ocean and wind currents on the surface, in the movement of water around the world. Professor Gaur said that “although the nearest coastline is hundreds of kilometers from Punjab, this area was a coastline around 55 million years ago”. He pointed out that to mitigate the impact of carbon emissions and the greenhouse effect, the oceans have degraded their own health and have gradually become hot and acidified, thus increasing sensitivity to climate change. Professor Gaur also discussed the detrimental effects of increasing ocean water temperature on marine species and stressed that scientists around the world should work on creating technologies that can harness cyclical energy. oceans and nourish its regeneration potential.

In his presidential address, Prof. Raghavendra P Tiwari, vice-chancellor of the Central University of Punjab, claimed that increasing levels of water pollution have increased the toxicity in several pockets of the ocean to dangerous levels. which threatens the existence of marine life in such areas. He said the impact on one component of the earthing system will negatively affect other components. Therefore, all components of the Earth system, namely the lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, must be considered and treated as an integral entity to save the flourishing human civilization on Mother Earth. Technologies developed to exploit natural resources should be part of the Sustainable Development Goals to ensure that the various component ecosystems coexist in healthy ways and complement and complement each other.

During this program, an International Quiz Competition was also organized in which 1360 participants from all over the world answered 15 questions on the theme of Oceans. Jaya Krishnan VM from Kerala, Anita Suresh Parsekar from Goa and Rahul Mukherjee from West Bengal took home the first, second and third prizes respectively. A large number of faculty members, academics and students from different departments of the university and beyond have participated in this program.


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What we wear also kills the earth | Maneka Gandhi Column | Wildlife Forum https://biofera.org/what-we-wear-also-kills-the-earth-maneka-gandhi-column-wildlife-forum/ https://biofera.org/what-we-wear-also-kills-the-earth-maneka-gandhi-column-wildlife-forum/#respond Sat, 05 Jun 2021 05:47:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/what-we-wear-also-kills-the-earth-maneka-gandhi-column-wildlife-forum/

Iit’s not just what you eat that kills the earth and all of its inhabitants. This is also what you wear.

Every time you buy an item of clothing, you are making a choice between the biosphere and the lithosphere. The biosphere is an agricultural area where cotton, flax (from flax), hemp – even silk (mulberry) – are cultivated. Wool, although cruel in another way, is also cultivated. The lithosphere is the protective crust of the earth. Fossil fuels are extracted from it and turned into synthetic fabrics like polyester.

Obviously, a sane human being would choose a renewable resource; something that can be cultivated over and over again. But 70% of all clothing comes from non-renewable fuels – we humans wear plastic, nylon, acrylic, polyester. Even the wonderful sarees of Benaras, which were heirlooms for all brides, are now mixed with polyester.

Fashion is as much an agricultural choice as food. It is common for us to pay attention to vegetables and grains and to question the farming community, but we do not pay attention to the fashion industry. Think of the tissue as emerging from the ground, then concern yourself with the practices required to grow and harvest it.

The beef industry is responsible for cutting down thousands of forests, but the fashion industry is no less. Tissues made from trees, such as bamboo and eucalyptus, cause forests to be cut down and turned into plantations and these trees are made into clothing.

If we choose cotton, as I have done all my life, I am guilty of ignoring the massive pesticides used and their impact on all of life. Cotton in India uses neonicotinoid pesticides – which are responsible for destroying billions of bees, putting our food supplies at risk. But polyester / nylon is responsible for massive mining, destroying forests, leaving gaping holes in the ground and contaminating water sources for miles around.

However, even if you choose to wear a sustainable agricultural product, the next problem is with dyes. The fabric can be organic cotton but its color comes from synthetic dyes. The cotton is first bleached – and the bleach kills all marine life. Then it is dyed. Synthetic dyes color most of the textiles we wear.

It is estimated that 25% of the chemicals produced in the world are used to make clothing, and many of them are used for dyeing. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, mercury, tin, cobalt, lead, and chromium, are needed to bind dyes to fabric and are present in 60-70% of dyes.

Large amounts of water are also needed in the dyeing industry, and excess chemical dyes are flushed out and dumped into rivers as effluent. A few years ago I was in Udaipur and encountered the most terrible rivers: blood red waters with so many dead animals around – animals that had been forced to drink because there was no no other water. It was all downstream of the fabric dyeing industry.

The effect of working with chemical dyes is apparent in the communities employed in this work (they are affected by exposure to endocrine disruptors contained in the dyes. Endocrine disrupting chemicals can interfere with hormones, causing cancerous tumors. and birth defects).

Who knows the effect of synthetic dyes on the human body through clothing. Dyes aren’t the only problem – there are a lot more chemicals in our clothes than we think. A range of finishing treatments, such as anti-wrinkle and stain removers, as well as screen-printed designs, contain chemicals such as bisphenol A, formaldehyde and phthalates. And it all goes in the river when you wash your clothes.

Representative image | Photo: AFP

The textile industry is the most polluting of all industries in India. In the world, clothing is the second source of pollution after oil. This industry is responsible for 10% of global carbon emissions and is becoming the fifth largest emitter of carbon dioxide. It is also one of the top 3 industries for wasting water and severely polluting freshwater resources. 2,600 liters of water are needed to produce a single t-shirt.

Every time you wash synthetic materials, they lose millions of plastic microfibers, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Marine Debris Program. Microfibers are a type of microplastic, that is, a plastic-based yarn thinner than a human hair, measuring less than 5mm.

The wires are so small that they pass directly through sewage treatment plants into the sea. Batches are trapped in sewage sludge – which is then sprayed onto the soil as fertilizer. Marine organisms, like plankton, mistake these tiny plastics for food. Small animals and fish depend on plankton for their main food. And humans eat fish. Thus, the fibers break off from your clothes and enter your stomach.

According to the Florida Microplastic Awareness Project (FMAP), citizen scientists collected samples of coastal water, filtered them, and analyzed them for microplastics. 89 percent of the samples collected contained at least one piece of plastic.

What else do synthetic fibers do to the earth?

Their production gives off nitrous oxide and acid gases, such as hydrogen chloride. In a study published in Science News, it was shown that nitrous oxide increases in the atmosphere by 0.2% per year, and part of this comes from the production of nylon and polyesters.

Nitrous oxide is a powerful greenhouse gas and has 300 times more potential than carbon dioxide. The production of polyester, for textiles, emitted approximately 706 billion kg (1.5 trillion pounds) of greenhouse gases in 2015; the equivalent of the annual emissions of 185 coal-fired power plants.

What are they doing to you?

Plastic clothing has an effect on the skin and the respiratory tract. It has also been found to cause infertility in men. Nylon, used in swimsuits, tights, and stockings, requires chemicals to reduce static electricity. Formaldehyde in tissues causes skin allergies, tearing of the eyes, and is also a known potent carcinogen. Titanium oxide, barium sulfate, an antistatic substance, causes hyperpigmentation of the skin, dermatitis, and central nervous system function such as disorientation, dizziness, headache and pain in the spine.

Cloth
Workers put hand-woven clothes to dry in a field | Photo: PTI

How to get out of this mess?

There are only a few solutions at the moment, but they are important; Don’t buy artificial fabric: no nylon, polyester, lycra, acrylic, no “upcycled plastic” that many fashion brands call green. Using shredded plastic in clothing is the worst way to use it because it creates plastic lint faster than any other material on Earth and forty percent of that lint goes straight to rivers, lakes and rivers. oceans.

If you stop using man-made synthetic and man-made fabrics, mining will decrease and you could save forests. You will certainly save a lot of oil. And none of these man-made materials are biodegradable. There is also something that is often referred to as semi-synthetic, like rayon, which is made from natural materials like cellulose from trees, but the fibers are made artificially.

Rayon causes massive deforestation as trees have to be uprooted, and that includes protected forests. Some animals are on the endangered species list specifically because of rayon. Bamboo is not to be encouraged either. Its stiffness is converted smoothly using toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, sodium hydroxide, and sulfuric acid.

Don’t buy so many clothes and throw the clothes away because they are old-fashioned. A recent study by the Ellen McArthur Foundation found that a garbage truck of textiles is wasted every second. The Copenhagen Fashion Summit reported that fashion is responsible for 92 million tonnes of solid waste dumped in landfills each year. Synthetic fibers can take up to 200 years to decompose.

Over a million tonnes of textiles are thrown away every year. It is estimated that 150 billion clothes are produced each year, or about 20 new clothes for each individual. Between 1999 and 2009, garment scrapping increased by 40%.

Try fibers like pineapple leather. Vegetable or fruit leather, made from waste, attracts attention. Pinatex, for example, is a material made from pineapple leaves grown in the Philippines. Its production is much more durable than traditional leather. It requires less water and no harmful chemicals which are ecologically toxic to wildlife.

The remaining leaf waste is recycled and used for fertilizer or biomass. Soybean fabric is an environmentally friendly fabric made from the husk of soybeans, the scraps of food production; a cruelty-free and sustainable option. They are biodegradable and the material is renewable.
Keep it simple: just buy organic cotton with organic dyes and you’ll save the world.

To join the animal welfare movement, contact gandhim@nic.in, www.peopleforanimalsindia.org


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A moderate earthquake shakes the North Atlantic; No threat of tsunami https://biofera.org/a-moderate-earthquake-shakes-the-north-atlantic-no-threat-of-tsunami/ https://biofera.org/a-moderate-earthquake-shakes-the-north-atlantic-no-threat-of-tsunami/#respond Sat, 05 Jun 2021 02:31:10 +0000 https://biofera.org/a-moderate-earthquake-shakes-the-north-atlantic-no-threat-of-tsunami/

An earthquake hit the North Atlantic. Image: USGS

USGS reports that a moderate earthquake struck under the North Atlantic Ocean; fortunately, there is no threat of a tsunami at this time of this earthquake along the east coast of the United States or in Europe. The 4.9 earthquake struck along the Reykjanes Ridge in southeast Greenland and southwest Iceland in the North Atlantic.

Today’s earthquake, which struck at 9:31 p.m. ET, was located 58.305 north 32.124 west at a depth of 10 km.

The earthquake was not strong enough to generate a tsunami.

This earthquake struck along the northern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the central Atlantic between the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate; the African plate is south of the epicenter of today’s earthquake.

These plates are based on the scientific theory of plate tectonics, which describes the large-scale movement of the plates that make up the Earth’s lithosphere. Scientists believe that tectonic processes began on Earth between 3.3 and 3.5 billion years ago, building on the concept of continental drift, a scientific concept developed at the turn of the 20th century. Continental drift is the gradual movement of continents across the Earth’s surface through geological time.

Seismograph
Seismographs measured the earthquakes that hit the world today.

Tsunamis are giant waves caused by earthquakes or underwater volcanic eruptions. In the depths of the ocean, the waves of the tsunami do not increase significantly in height. But as the waves move inland, they rise higher and higher as the depth of the ocean decreases. According to the National Ocean Service, the speed of the tsunami waves depends on the depth of the ocean rather than the distance from the source of the wave. Tsunami waves can travel as fast as jets over deep water, only slowing down when they reach shallow water. While tsunamis are often referred to as tidal waves, this name is discouraged by oceanographers because the tides have little to do with these giant waves.

These earthquakes add to an active period in the United States over the previous Memorial Day holiday weekend. As of Sunday night, more than 130 earthquakes rocked the continental United States. Also over the weekend, a strong 6.1 earthquake rocked south-central Alaska. And seismic activity continues on the Big Island of Hawaii due to volcanic unrest there.

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Is carbon the “culture” of the future? https://biofera.org/is-carbon-the-culture-of-the-future/ https://biofera.org/is-carbon-the-culture-of-the-future/#respond Fri, 04 Jun 2021 15:48:44 +0000 https://biofera.org/is-carbon-the-culture-of-the-future/

Growing awareness and concern for the environment, changes in government policy, America’s return to the Paris Agreement and high demand for carbon offsets all indicate an appetite for another type of agricultural crop – carbon.

“There has been growing discussion of how to create a way for farmers to earn credit for climate-friendly practices that they have implemented or will implement in their operations,” Joe said. Outlaw, co-director of the Agricultural and Food Policy Center at Texas A&M College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and economist with the Texas A&M Agricultural Extension Service. “One of these means is to use carbon cultivation which would allow the capture or sequestration of organic carbon in the soil, which would allow carbon credits to be sold to companies so that they can offset their greenhouse gas emissions. “

However, many questions about the efficiency of carbon farming and its value to the farmer remain unanswered. Will there be incentives to attract enough farmers to make this work? How difficult will it be to implement and monitor these carbon capture methods? Will some farmers benefit more than others? Will farmers be credited for the actions they have already taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions?

The carbon cycle

Carbon is constantly circulating through the Earth. Light energy from the sun works as a fuel for the carbon cycle – a natural process that moves carbon through our atmosphere, biosphere, pedosphere, lithosphere, and oceans.

“Human activity has created the need to extract huge amounts of deeply sequestered fossil carbon as fossil fuels,” Katie said with Texas A&M AgriLife Research, a soil fertility scientist in the Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Lubbock. “When burned, these dense forms of carbon release massive amounts of carbon dioxide. “

She said more carbon dioxide is now being released than plant life on Earth and the oceans can naturally reabsorb. This excess carbon dioxide forms a blanket in our atmosphere, trapping heat from the sun and causing changes in climate.

Globally, soils are estimated to contain about 10 times the amount of carbon in the atmosphere, far more than what is found in normal vegetation.

“Carbon cultivation is seen as a way to help restore balance in the carbon cycle,” Lewis said. “It also helps soils build resilience to drought and increase agricultural productivity in a natural way. “

What is carbon agriculture?

“The idea behind growing carbon is quite simple: to remove excess carbon from the atmosphere and store it in the soil, where it will aid plant growth,” Lewis said.

Carbon cultivation involves the implementation of agricultural practices that improve the rate at which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and converted to plant matter and soil organic matter. It works by applying agricultural methods such as without plowing or conservation tillage for minimal soil disturbance, mulching, composting, livestock rotation and use cover crops as a means of sequestering carbon in the soil.

“The loss of carbon from the soil is primarily due to the removal of carbon-containing plant material, usually during harvest,” Lewis said. “Changes in land management can increase or decrease soil carbon, creating a new balance. The variation of the climate can also modify this balance. Carbon cultivation can be considered successful when the net amount of soil carbon captured or sequestered exceeds the amount lost.

Lewis said that to accurately estimate soil carbon storage or stocks, soil samples must be collected at a depth that will determine bulk density and organic carbon using a dry combustion method.

“Bulk density is needed to convert the percentage of organic carbon to an actual amount of carbon in the soil, a stock,” she said. “The depth of sample collection will depend on soil depth and crop history. Deeper depths are likely where there is greater storage potential.

Lewis said another method of estimating carbon storage is to use a modeling approach based on management practices implemented within a farm.

“The outputs of the model should then be verified using lab tests,” she said.

In all, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) of the US Department of Agriculture identified at least 32 on-farm conservation practices known to improve soil health and sequester carbon. These practices also offer other benefits in terms of water retention, hydrological function, biodiversity and resilience.

Bet on a carbon bank

“Recently there have been discussions about creating a ‘carbon bank’ at USDA that would buy and sell carbon credits to farmers,” Outlaw said. “The credits could then be sold to companies needing to offset their emissions. “

This concept, which has received support from a number of farming, agribusiness, forestry and environmental groups, also makes accommodations for early adopters who have led the way in carbon sequestration practices.

“There hasn’t been a national cap-and-trade effort here in the United States for over a decade, but currently there appears to be a growing demand for carbon offsets,” said Outlaw. “There are already a number of private credit markets or carbon payment programs being considered or developed. This seems to support the idea that carbon cultivation could potentially be a way for farmers to generate additional income. “

However, for the overall carbon agriculture framework to be successful, it should include sound policies, public-private partnerships, precise quantification methodologies, and supporting funding to effectively implement direct and scientific solutions, a declared Outlaw.

“It will also need to be done at a scale where we can achieve measurable carbon capture that promotes regenerative agriculture focused on creating and maintaining healthy soils that absorb and store carbon, ”he said.

Is carbon agriculture sustainable?

The jury is still out on whether carbon farming can be sustainable in the long term.

“There are many technical and regulatory hurdles to overcome, as well as the concerns of some environmentalists that even its widespread implementation will not significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions or provide only a temporary solution,” Outlaw said.

He said there are also concerns that carbon cultivation will mainly benefit certain agricultural regions. In addition, many farmers may not be able to afford the cost of implementing environmentally beneficial measures without some form of financial assistance.

Some farmers were able to receive government payments from the NRCS Conservation Stewardship Program to cover the costs of implementing certain conservation measures. However, this funding is capped by the Farm Law and there is no long-term guarantee of continued payments.

“Right now there is really no way of knowing if carbon cultivation would be an effective way to tackle climate change, but there is no doubt that there are many ways to bring benefits. changes in land management that would improve soil health and benefit the environment, ”says Outlaw.

Will carbon farming work for me?

Studies of soil organic carbon sequestration show that the Corn Belt, with its good soil, mild climate and reliable rainfall, is one of the best prospects for viable carbon cultivation. In addition, areas of the southern United States with long growing seasons and sufficient rainfall, as well as those with substantial irrigation, provide viable opportunities for carbon cultivation.

“Growing carbon will likely be more of a challenge for farmers in hot, dry parts of the country,” Outlaw said. “This is why there appears to be support for a voluntary system that adapts to climatic differences while providing a range of options from which farmers and ranchers can choose to determine the best program for their lands.”

USDA has a web tool called COMET-Farm to help farmers interested in transitioning to carbon sequestration practices. The tool provides a rough carbon footprint from user-supplied data and allows farmers to study different land management scenarios to see which one is best for them. It also guides the user in describing farm and ranch management practices, including alternative future management scenarios.

Once completed, a report is generated comparing the carbon changes and greenhouse gas emissions between current management practices and future scenarios.

“As an economist and person with many years in agriculture, my advice would be for producers to do their homework and weigh the pros, cons and costs of carbon farming against its economic and other benefits. potentials for their operations and then decide if it works for them, ”Outlaw said.


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NASA to send 2 probes to Venus for the first time in decades https://biofera.org/nasa-to-send-2-probes-to-venus-for-the-first-time-in-decades/ https://biofera.org/nasa-to-send-2-probes-to-venus-for-the-first-time-in-decades/#respond Fri, 04 Jun 2021 11:30:01 +0000 https://biofera.org/nasa-to-send-2-probes-to-venus-for-the-first-time-in-decades/

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NASA has announced the winner of a competition to determine targets for a new round of exploration missions. The space exploration agency has opted for a pair of missions to Venus, the first for NASA in over 30 years. These missions were launched under NASA’s Discovery Program, which funds small-scale space programs of $ 500 million or less per launch.

The two probes, DAVINCI + and VERITAS, will restore new data on the evolution and current structures of the second planet from the Sun. Both are acronyms: DAVINCI + stands for Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gas, Chemistry, and Imaging, Plus, while VERITAS stands for Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy.

DAVINCI +, according to NASA, is a two-vehicle affair with a spacecraft and a probe. The instruments on board each are fairly straightforward. The objective of the Venus Analytic Laboratory is to descend into the Venusian atmosphere and measure its composition at different altitudes. Long-term surface survival is not expected; modern electronics are not able to maintain operation on Venus for a period of time. DAVINCI + will carry a mass spectrometer to measure rare and trace gases in the atmosphere of Venus, a laser spectrometer, an atmospheric structural analysis tool (VASI) and the Venus Descent Imager – a camera to capture images from the terrain to the ‘location of the descent.

VERITAS will attempt to find out if Venus has ever had water on the surface and will determine if Venus is currently actively volcanic. VERITAS would carry two instruments, the Venus Emissivity Mapper (VEM) and the Venus Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (VISAR). VISAR would collect data to generate topographic maps of the world.

“Venus is a ‘Rosetta Stone’ for reading the record books of climate change, the evolution of habitability and what happens when a planet loses a long period of surface oceans,” said James Garvin, DAVINCI + principal investigator at NASA’s Goddard space flight. Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “But Venus is ‘difficult’ since every clue is hidden behind the curtain of a massive opaque atmosphere with inhospitable conditions for surface exploration, so we have to be smart and bring our best ‘scientific tools’ to Venus in innovative ways. with missions like DAVINCI +. This is why we named our mission “DAVINCI +” after the inspired and visionary Renaissance thinking of Leonardo da Vinci who went beyond science to connect with engineering, technology and even art. ”

Venus and its evolution have long been a puzzle for scientists, so there is hope that this new research will shed new light on the evolution of the planet. Unlike Mars, which is much smaller than Earth, Venus is often thought of as our planetary twin, with very similar mass and gravity. Despite these basic similarities, the surface of Venus is one of the least suitable places for life in the entire solar system. It is literally easier to protect humans who roam in the void than on the surface of Venus.

But there are theories that Venus could have been much more Earth-like a long time ago. One argument is that it is Earth’s plate tectonics that has kept our surface mild for so long. At Venus’ distance from the sun, the theory is that the planet’s lithosphere is too plastic. Cracks and breaks the seal again. This creates a “stagnant cover” tectonic system. Mars may be governed by similar dynamics, but Mars’ relatively small mass means the planet has cooled faster. The “cover” of Mars, for lack of a better word, seems to have been glued to the top of the planet for some time now.

There is some evidence that this might be less true on Venus. The entire surface of the planet does not appear to be more than 200 million years old, implying a planet-wide resurfacing event at some point. One theory is that on Venus, heat builds up and is trapped under the crust until the crust separates, releasing huge amounts of magma. Cataclysmic events like this, combined with Venus’ lack of a magnetic field, may have led to the loss of the planet’s pristine water. It’s also possible that Venus was more habitable when the Sun was much younger and cooler, but its water had evaporated as the Sun’s brightness increased.

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The future of Six Carls is Fulbright – News – Carleton College https://biofera.org/the-future-of-six-carls-is-fulbright-news-carleton-college/ https://biofera.org/the-future-of-six-carls-is-fulbright-news-carleton-college/#respond Thu, 03 Jun 2021 23:14:39 +0000 https://biofera.org/the-future-of-six-carls-is-fulbright-news-carleton-college/

Six members of the Carleton College classes of 2020 and 2021 have accepted prestigious Fulbright Program for American Students grants to travel the world and participate in graduate programs, advanced research, and culturally immersive experiences in the coming year.

During their scholarships, the Carls will meet, work, live and learn from people in their host country while sharing their daily experiences. The Fulbright program facilitates cultural exchanges in the classroom, in the field, at home and in routine tasks, allowing the beneficiary to gain an appreciation of the views and beliefs of others, their way of doing and thinking. .

Since 1946, the Fulbright Program has worked to increase mutual understanding and respect between people living in the United States and people living in more than 140 participating countries around the world. Each year the Fulbright Program for American Students—The country’s largest exchange program — selects approximately 2,000 students to spend an academic year in the country of their choice. Participants are chosen for their academic record, their personal qualifications, their language preparation, their desire to promote active engagement with a host community and the feasibility of their project.

Meet this year’s Fulbright scholarship recipients:

Natalie Hummel ’20

  • Urbana, Illinois
  • Geology
  • Fulbright location: Aachen, Germany

“I hope to spend most of the next year in Aachen, Germany, working on digital models of subduction zones. The subduction of the oceanic lithosphere is one of the main processes that drive tectonic plate movement. Numerical models make it possible to bridge the gap between the properties of rocks determined in the laboratory and the large-scale dynamics of this process. I am very excited to work with my host in Aachen, and I think having some experience in finite element modeling and geodynamics will be really valuable for my research at the university.

I am also looking forward to exploring Aachen, meeting new people and learning German (my parents and brother all speak a little German so happy to make it up.) chatted with a local high school for scientific aid awareness raising or teaching English, and I am delighted to visit the climbing halls of Aachen!

Joshua Angevine '21

Joshua Angevine ’21

  • Queens, New York
  • Political science
  • Fulbright Location: Argentina

“I was selected as a finalist in 2021, but I won’t start until 2022 due to Argentina’s unique academic calendar. I will be an English teaching assistant at a university yet to be determined. Our meetings and finalization of details will come during the fall. Along with that, I’m looking to implement a mentorship program similar to the one we have here at Carleton, Project Friendship, led by Holly Schoenbauer on our campus. I have a great time doing it and would love to use it as a cultural bridge as something I bring to Argentina.

Zoe Goldenberg-Hart '21

Zoe Goldenberg-Hart ’21

  • Silver Spring, MD
  • Latin American Studies
  • Fulbright location: Austria

“I received a combined award for teaching and doing a community internship in Vienna. I will spend half of my time as an English teaching assistant in a secondary school and the other half working with Flüchlinge Willkommen (Refugees Welcome), an organization that helps refugees and asylum seekers find accommodation in the city. I will also be taking courses at the University of Vienna and I am delighted to pursue courses in social and cultural anthropology.

I fell in love with the German language during my gap year in Germany, and look forward to strengthening my skills and learning more about Austrian dialects. I am also delighted to be immersed in Austrian culture, to share my love of languages ​​with my students, to learn and to work with the refugee community in Vienna. While I’m at it, I plan to get involved with the local Jewish community and find a women’s soccer team to coach! I look forward to living abroad again and gaining more experience in the non-profit sector.

Sarah Grier '21

Sarah Grier ’21

  • Dublin, California
  • Economics and statistics
  • Fulbright Location: Thailand

“I will be teaching English at a college in Thailand. I don’t know yet where exactly in the country I will be, but I do know that I will be placed in a smaller regional town. After briefly experiencing Thailand on the political economy and ecology of Southeast Asia Off-campus studies trip in winter 2020, looking forward to learning the language and better understanding thai culture and regional culture of the city i am placed in.

Having spent a lot of time coaching young athletes, I am looking forward to working with students in a larger classroom. I’m excited to engage in my community through sport and hopefully create a space for non-male community members to play sport and learn about STEM at the same time. I am extremely grateful for this opportunity to broaden my worldview and broaden my teaching experience.

Catherine Johnson '20

Catherine Johnson ’20

  • Birthplace: Galesburg, Illinois
  • Political science
  • Fulbright Location: Nepal

“I am very happy to start my teaching scholarship in Nepal! I spent a month and a half in Nepal while studying abroad, and the people I met there motivated me to come back. I can’t wait to reconnect with old friends, meet new people, see the Himalayas again and eat more dal bhat. At the moment, I don’t know where I will be placed or in what age group I will teach, but I do know that I hope to leave next March. Ever since I started a tutoring business at the age of 14, I know I have a passion for teaching. One of my favorite things to do at Carleton has been working with Paper Airplanes, a non-profit organization that pairs volunteer tutors with Syrians whose education has been disrupted by conflict. My parents met in Nepal and I am delighted to have the opportunity to return to a country that has given me and my family so much.

Meredith Oldham '20

Meredith Oldham ’20

  • Austin, Texas
  • English (minor in French and Francophone studies)
  • Fulbright Location: South Korea

“Next year, I will spend 11 months as an English teaching assistant at a South Korean secondary school. I will build on my experience as a teaching assistant at Carleton, as well as my experience teaching English in France with TAPIF during the last school year.

I was first drawn to Korea after working with Korean ESL students in the summer of 2018. Since then, I have wanted to learn more about Korean language and culture, especially the system. Korean educational and Korean media. During my scholarship, I hope to deliver engaging ESL classes using English language media and creative storytelling as tools in the classroom.

Apart from my teaching responsibilities, I look forward to learning more about Korean history and culture, exploring different regions, and improving my mastery of the Korean language.



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Conscious Mode – OrissaPOST https://biofera.org/conscious-mode-orissapost/ https://biofera.org/conscious-mode-orissapost/#respond Thu, 03 Jun 2021 02:00:12 +0000 https://biofera.org/conscious-mode-orissapost/

Iit’s not just what you eat that kills the earth and all of its inhabitants. This is also what you wear. Every time you buy an item of clothing, you are making a choice between the biosphere and the lithosphere. The biosphere is an agricultural area where cotton, flax (from flax), hemp – even silk (mulberry) – are cultivated. Wool, although cruel in another way, is also cultivated. The lithosphere is the protective crust of the earth. Fossil fuels are extracted from it and turned into synthetic fabrics like polyester.
Clearly, a sane human being would choose a renewable resource; something that can be cultivated over and over again. But 70% of all clothing comes from non-renewable fuels – we humans wear plastic, nylon, acrylic, polyester. Even the wonderful sarees of Benaras, which were heirlooms for all brides, are now mixed with polyester.

Fashion is as much an agricultural choice as food. It is common for us to pay attention to vegetables and grains and to question the farming community, but we do not pay attention to the fashion industry. Think of the tissue as emerging from the ground, then concern yourself with the practices required to grow and harvest it.

The beef industry is responsible for cutting down thousands of forests, but the fashion industry is no less. Tissues made from trees, such as bamboo and eucalyptus, cause forests to be cut down and turned into plantations and these trees are made into clothing.
If we choose cotton, as I have done all my life, I am guilty of ignoring the massive pesticides used and their impact on all of life. Cotton in India uses neonicotinoid pesticides – which are responsible for destroying billions of bees, putting our food supplies at risk. But polyester / nylon is responsible for massive mining, destroying forests, leaving gaping holes in the ground and contaminating water sources for miles around.

However, even if you choose to wear a sustainable agricultural product, the next problem is with dyes. The fabric can be organic cotton but its color comes from synthetic dyes. The cotton is first bleached – and the bleach kills all marine life. Then it is dyed. Synthetic dyes color most of the textiles we wear.

It is estimated that 25% of the chemicals produced in the world are used to make clothing, and many of them are used for dyeing. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, mercury, tin, cobalt, lead, and chromium, are needed to bind dyes to fabric and are present in 60-70% of dyes. Large amounts of water are also needed in the dyeing industry, and excess chemical dyes are flushed out and dumped into rivers as effluent. A few years ago I was in Udaipur and encountered the most terrible rivers: blood red waters with so many dead animals around – animals that had been forced to drink because there was no no other water. It was all downstream from the fabric dyeing industry.
The effect of working with chemical dyes is apparent in the communities employed in this work (they are affected by exposure to endocrine disruptors contained in the dyes. Endocrine disrupting chemicals can interfere with hormones, causing cancerous tumors. and birth defects). Who knows the effect of synthetic dyes on the human body through clothing. Dyes aren’t the only problem – there are a lot more chemicals in our clothes than we think.

The textile industry is the most polluting of all industries in India. In the world, clothing is the second source of pollution after oil. This industry is responsible for 10% of global carbon emissions and becomes the world’s fifth largest emitter of carbon dioxide. It is also one of the top 3 industries for wasting water and severely polluting freshwater resources. About 2,600 liters of water are needed to produce a single t-shirt.

Every time you wash synthetic materials, they lose millions of plastic microfibers, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Marine Debris Program. Microfibers are a type of microplastic, that is, a plastic-based yarn thinner than a human hair, measuring less than 5mm. The wires are so small that they pass directly through sewage treatment plants into the sea. Batches are trapped in sewage sludge – which is then sprayed onto the soil as fertilizer. Marine organisms, like plankton, mistake these tiny plastics for food. Small animals and fish depend on plankton for their main food. And humans eat fish. Thus, the fibers break off from your clothes and enter your stomach.

In a study published in Science News, it was shown that nitrous oxide increases in the atmosphere by 0.2% per year, and part of this comes from the production of nylon and polyesters. Nitrous oxide is a powerful greenhouse gas and has 300 times more potential than carbon dioxide. The production of polyester, for textiles, emitted approximately 706 billion kg (1.5 trillion pounds) of greenhouse gases in 2015; the equivalent of the annual emissions of 185 coal-fired power plants.

What are they doing to you? Plastic clothing has an effect on the skin and the respiratory tract. It has also been found to cause infertility in men. Nylon, used in swimsuits, tights, and stockings, requires chemicals to reduce static electricity. Formaldehyde in tissues causes skin allergies, tearing of the eyes, and is also a known potent carcinogen.

How to get out of this mess? There are only a few solutions at the moment, but they are important.
Don’t buy artificial fabric: no nylon, polyester, lycra, acrylic, no ‘upcycled plastic’ that many fashion brands say is green. If you stop using man-made synthetic and man-made fabrics, mining will decrease and you could save forests. You will certainly save a lot of oil. And none of these man-made materials are biodegradable. There is also something that is often referred to as semi-synthetic, like rayon, which is made of natural materials like cellulose from trees, but the fibers are made artificially. Rayon causes massive deforestation as trees have to be uprooted, and that includes protected forests. Some animals are on the endangered species list specifically because of rayon. Bamboo is not to be encouraged either. Its stiffness is converted smoothly using toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, sodium hydroxide, and sulfuric acid.

Don’t buy so many clothes and throw the clothes away because they are old-fashioned. A recent study by the Ellen McArthur Foundation found that a garbage truck of textiles is wasted every second. The Copenhagen Fashion Summit reported that fashion is responsible for 92 million tonnes of solid waste dumped in landfills each year. Synthetic fibers can take up to 200 years to decompose. Over a million tonnes of textiles are thrown away every year. It is estimated that 150 billion clothes are produced each year, or about 20 new clothes for each individual. Between 1999 and 2009, garment scrapping increased by 40%.

Try fibers like pineapple leather. Vegetable or fruit leather, made from waste, attracts attention. Pinatex, for example, is a material made from pineapple leaves grown in the Philippines. Its production is much more durable than traditional leather. It requires less water and no harmful chemicals which are ecologically toxic to wildlife. The remaining leaf waste is recycled and used for fertilizer or biomass. Soybean fabric is an environmentally friendly fabric made from the husk of soybeans, the scraps of food production; a cruelty-free and sustainable option. They are biodegradable and the material is renewable.

Keep it simple: just buy organic cotton with organic dyes and you’ll save the world.

To join the animal welfare movement, contact gandhim@nic.in, www.peopleforanimalsindia.org


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Three moderate earthquakes hit the north of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; No threat of tsunami https://biofera.org/three-moderate-earthquakes-hit-the-north-of-the-mid-atlantic-ridge-no-threat-of-tsunami/ https://biofera.org/three-moderate-earthquakes-hit-the-north-of-the-mid-atlantic-ridge-no-threat-of-tsunami/#respond Mon, 31 May 2021 19:01:43 +0000 https://biofera.org/three-moderate-earthquakes-hit-the-north-of-the-mid-atlantic-ridge-no-threat-of-tsunami/

Memorial Day started with 3 moderate earthquakes along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Image: USGS

Three moderate earthquakes rocked the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the central Atlantic Ocean early this morning. The first was a 5.0 magnitude earthquake followed by a 4.8 5 minutes later. The last one, a 4.7, hit 35 minutes later. They were all about 6.2 miles deep. Due to their intensity, there is no threat of a tsunami in the Atlantic Basin, including the east coast of the United States, due to these earthquakes at this time.

An equally strong 5.0 earthquake in this region a week ago.

The Central Mid-Atlantic Ridge separates the South American Plate from the African Plate. In this part of the world, the two plates pull apart, triggering earthquakes when they separate above the ridge.

These plates are based on the scientific theory of plate tectonics, which describes the large-scale movement of the plates that make up the Earth’s lithosphere. Scientists believe that tectonic processes began on Earth between 3.3 and 3.5 billion years ago, building on the concept of continental drift, a scientific concept developed at the turn of the 20th century. Continental drift is the gradual movement of continents on the Earth’s surface through geological time.

Seismograph
Seismographs measured the earthquakes that hit the world today.

Tsunamis are giant waves caused by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions under the sea. In the depths of the ocean, tsunami waves do not increase significantly in height. But as the waves move inland, they accumulate to higher and higher heights as the depth of the ocean decreases. According to the National Ocean Service, the speed of tsunami waves depends on the depth of the ocean rather than the distance from the source of the wave. Tsunami waves can travel as fast as jets over deep water, only slowing down when they reach shallow water. While tsunamis are often referred to as tidal waves, this name is discouraged by oceanographers because the tides have little to do with these giant waves.

These earthquakes add to an active time in the United States this Memorial Day holiday weekend. As of Sunday evening, more than 130 earthquakes rocked the continental United States. Overnight, a strong 6.1 earthquake rocked south central Alaska. And seismic activity continues on the Big Island of Hawaii due to volcanic unrest.

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