Lithosphere – Biofera http://biofera.org/ Wed, 15 Sep 2021 11:51:58 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://biofera.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/biofera-icon-150x150.png Lithosphere – Biofera http://biofera.org/ 32 32 Seattle start-up pledges to offer 6,000 Bitcoin ($ 270 million) to El Salvador and other countries adopting Bitcoin as legal offering, launch of LITHO utility token https://biofera.org/seattle-start-up-pledges-to-offer-6000-bitcoin-270-million-to-el-salvador-and-other-countries-adopting-bitcoin-as-legal-offering-launch-of-litho-utility-token/ https://biofera.org/seattle-start-up-pledges-to-offer-6000-bitcoin-270-million-to-el-salvador-and-other-countries-adopting-bitcoin-as-legal-offering-launch-of-litho-utility-token/#respond Tue, 14 Sep 2021 15:55:04 +0000 https://biofera.org/seattle-start-up-pledges-to-offer-6000-bitcoin-270-million-to-el-salvador-and-other-countries-adopting-bitcoin-as-legal-offering-launch-of-litho-utility-token/

SEATTLE, September 14, 2021 / PRNewswire / – El Salvador is the first country in the world to adopt bitcoin as legal tender. Today, Joel Kasr, founder of KaJ Laboratories and Lithosphere, pledged to offer 6,000 BTC to El Salvador and nations like Panama who adopt bitcoin as legal tender.

The 10-year commitment will distribute the funds in different phases through the KaJ Labs Foundation. The Foundation has set aside five percent of $ LITHO’s total funding for social responsibility causes and this is the number one cause the foundation will support. While a handful of nations such as Ukraine, Cuba and Germany have approved legislation to govern digital assets, El Salvador is the first to accept bitcoin as legal tender.

that of El Salvador President Nayib bukele led the effort to allow cryptocurrency to be licensed as legal tender. It became law in June 2021 and marked a historic world first. It will boost investment in the country and help the 70 percent of residents who do not have access to traditional banking services. It also helps Salvadorians residing outside the country who send money to their home country, which accounts for 24 percent of that of El Salvador GDP.

The country bought 400 bitcoins worth around $ 21 million the day before cryptocurrency is adopted as legal tender. People who want to transact with cryptocurrency can sign up for the country wallet app called Chivo with a national ID.

$ LITHO was recently launched on Binance Smart Chain. The LITHO utility token is used as a gas on the Lithosphere blockchain similar to Ether on Ethereum and can be used for staking, network governance as well as other value transfer functions. $ LITHO is available for purchase via CrepeSwap and other decentralized BSC exchanges.

The Lithosphere blockchain will offer scalability and interoperability across multiple platforms supporting Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Consensus (BFT) for greater flexibility, greater accessibility, and faster transactions across multiple blockchain networks, while allowing other blockchains to retain full authority over themselves. Several methods of value transfer can be carried out under a single management structure. With Lithosphere’s deep neural networks in smart contracts, content creators will be able to generate visual art images and tokenize them as non-fungible tokens (NTFs). To improve the security of the Lithosphere network, individuals earn significant rewards by staking LITHO.

KaJ Laboratories recently announced a $ 500,000 $ LITHO Trading Contest on the PancakeSwap Decentralized Exchange ranging from September 1, 2021 at 7 UTC at September 28, 2021 To 16:00 UTC. Individuals have the opportunity to win a share of the grand prize when LITHO is officially listed on 5 CEX (centralized exchanges).

Lithosphere brings the future to life with its blockchain technology and unique approach to cryptocurrency. It is the first platform to implement Deep Learning in smart contracts via integrated deep neural networks. Among the innovative features of the platform is its inclusion and interoperability with all existing wallets, cryptocurrencies and blockchains.

The launch of Lithosphere and the promise of 6,000 bitcoins to El Salvador is an important part of the work of the KaJ Labs Foundation’s commitment to social responsibility cause. The organization also made a donation $ 5 million to Ripple’s legal defense fund against the SEC.

About the Lithosphere

Lithosphere is a next-generation platform for decentralized cross-chain applications powered by AI and Deep Learning.

On KaJ Laboratories

KaJ Laboratories is a decentralized research organization focused on artificial intelligence and blockchain technology. We are determined to create innovative products that work for the greatest good around the world.

Media inquiries
Juliette N.
Phone: 612-234-7321
Email: 318881@email4pr.com
KaJ Labs Foundation
4730 University Way NE 104- # 175
Seattle, WA 98105
Website: https://kajlabs.org
Website: https://lithosphere.network

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March? This is old news. Welcome to the decade of Venus https://biofera.org/march-this-is-old-news-welcome-to-the-decade-of-venus/ https://biofera.org/march-this-is-old-news-welcome-to-the-decade-of-venus/#respond Sat, 11 Sep 2021 16:00:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/march-this-is-old-news-welcome-to-the-decade-of-venus/

When it comes to exploring the solar system, the last few decades have undeniably been focused on visiting Mars. From sending rovers to its surface to making plans for possible crewed missions, the Red Planet holds an important place in our understanding of planetary science. But what about our other planetary neighbor? Where is the love for Venus?

After decades of oblivion, three missions will soon be heading to Venus: DAVINCI + and VERITAS from NASA, and EnVision from the European Space Agency. These three missions were recently approved and aim to launch in the late 2020s or early 2030s.

This is long overdue, because although sometimes spaceships pass Venus on their way elsewhere, the last time NASA sent a mission specifically to Venus was the Magellan Orbiter launched in 1989. In the three decades that followed, the largest agency space on Earth did not visit the next planet.

To find out why and to find out what we might learn from the three new missions there, we spoke to two Venus experts: Jenny Whitten, a member of the science team for NASA’s upcoming VERITAS mission, and Jean-Luc. Margot, planetologist. who recently conducted a study on the fundamental properties of Venus.

Venus is a mystery

The first thing to understand about Venus is how little we know of the place and how many open questions remain. We do not have a timeline of the geological history of the planet, and there is no consensus on what the first Venus looked like. Compared to other places like Mars or the Moon, we don’t have a big picture of what the planet looked like over time and how it developed to state in which it is found today.

“About a billion years ago, we don’t know what was going on. There is no geological record, ”said Whitten.

We also don’t know what the planet looks like inside, which leaves many issues unresolved. “We don’t know the size of Venus’ core,” Margot said. “We don’t know if the nucleus is liquid or solid – we suspect it is liquid but we are not sure. And this drives the entire thermal evolution of the planet ”in terms of magnetic field and spin. So, “it’s really important to have a good estimate of your core size.”

Venus – 3D perspective view of Maat Mons. NASA / JPL

We know that Venus is covered with thousands of volcanoes – more than any other planet in our solar system – but we don’t know if they are active or not. “Volcanism is very important because on Venus this is how we release heat and release volatile substances from within, like water and gases that can be important for life,” Whitten explained. “So what we’re really trying to figure out with volcanic history is the habitability of Venus.”

And when it comes to the surface of the planet, there are twisted and warped regions that we’re always trying to grab hold of. “There are these strange terrains on Venus called tesserae that may be analogues of the continents of Earth, but we don’t know how they formed,” Margot said. “It is an important part of the geological history of Venus.”

A strange beast

Photo of Venus.
NASA / JPL

The second thing to understand about Venus is that it is a strange place. Its thick atmosphere is dotted with clouds of sulfuric acid, and it traps heat so effectively that it is warmer on the surface than on Mercury, although it is further from the sun. More strangely, the atmosphere turns 60 times faster than the planet below. In fact, it spins so fast that it can even affect the length of a day.

And in terms of dramatic geological events, Venus has one possibility that really takes the cake: Its surface can completely melt and reform every few hundred million years, in events called resurfacing. The theory is that the planet generates so much heat that it eventually erupts across the surface via erupting volcanoes all over the planet, melting impact craters and smoothing everything on the surface.

In an image of Magellan nicknamed the "Crater farm" we see the curious stratification of volcanic activity and impact craters.
In a Magellanic image dubbed the “Crater Farm,” we see the curious stratification of volcanic activity and impact craters. NASA / JPL

“Venus may have had a major resurfacing of the entire planet 700 million years ago,” Margot explained. “It may have had several complete resurfacing in its history, and we don’t understand how it works… It’s an episodic and catastrophic melting of the surface, which is a really fascinating process.

Earth’s evil twin

    Artist's impression of a warm and thick atmosphere rich in CO2 (left) and of today's Earth.
Tobias Stierli / NCCR PlanetS

One of the reasons researchers are so interested in Venus is that it is, on a large scale, very similar to Earth. It is comparable in size, mass and density. Venus may have already had oceans on its surface and might even have been habitable at some point in its past. It is also a rocky planet, and formed at a similar location in the solar system. This means that we can assume that the two planets are made of roughly similar material.

But today the two planets are very different. Venus’s atmosphere is overwhelmingly dense at 100 times the pressure of Earth on its surface. At 900 degrees Fahrenheit, the surface temperature is high enough to melt lead, and the planet has lost all the water it has ever had, leaving a dry and inhospitable envelope.

“There are a lot of similarities between Earth and Venus,” Whitten said. “But they evolved very differently. So we are trying to understand why.

The researchers believe that the divergence between Earth and Venus may have occurred because the higher temperatures on Venus caused more water to evaporate into the atmosphere, where it was struck by light from the sun and divided into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen escaped into space, never to return, leaving the planet dry.

But that’s a guess, and we don’t know when it happened, because there is so much we don’t know about the history of Venus and how it is different from Earth. “If we are trying to understand our own planet and how the terrestrial planets evolve, Venus is really crucial,” said Margot. “And there [are] huge gaps in our knowledge and understanding.

Learning more about the differences between Earth and Venus is also important for the study of exoplanets. When we see distant planets the size of Earth, do they look more like Earth or Venus? We need to understand the evolution of planets in our own solar system to better understand what planets in other systems might look like.

An overlooked gem

Considering all the important questions about Venus that we have yet to answer, and given that this is our neighboring planet next door, you might be wondering why Venus has not been further explored. How come Mars gets all the attention?

It could be that Venus still holds clues to the possibility that life existed there at some point in her past. “And one of the biggest questions in science is about life and habitability.”

First, Venus is just very difficult to visit. To try to send a probe to its surface, you have to face extreme conditions hostile to electronics, as well as to humans. The pressure at the surface is equivalent to the pressure 900 meters underwater, “so your spaceship looks like a submarine because that’s the only way it can survive these overwhelming pressures and temperatures,” he said. said Margot. “Nothing has survived the surface of Venus for more than two hours.”

There is also our bias in terms of finding planets that appear to be able to host life as we understand it. When you look at Mars, it’s an alien place, but you can imagine people living there, albeit with carefully constructed spacesuits and habitats. Venus doesn’t look so attractive.

“For a long time, we thought Venus was inhospitable – which she is now,” said Margot. “But we didn’t realize it could have been hospitable early in the history of the solar system.”

It could be that Venus still holds clues to the possibility that life existed there at some point in her past. “And one of the biggest questions in science is about life and habitability,” Margot added.

And there might be some degree of world politics involved. “During the space race, the Soviet Union really focused its efforts on Venus, so they established a Venus program for a long time,” Whitten said. The United States, on the other hand, has focused more on Mars. Although today international cooperation in space exploration is much greater, there is arguably still a legacy of the Cold War that directs NASA to Mars and away from Venus.

But now, finally, with the three recently approved missions to Venus, we will return to this fascinating place to find out more.

“It was disheartening to a lot of planetary scientists that Venus had been overlooked for so long,” said Margot. “But now it’s really exciting that we’re finally going back.”

Three new missions

The three new Venusian explorers will be two missions from NASA, DAVINCI + and VERITAS, and one mission from the European Space Agency, EnVision. Unless you imagined there was some animosity between the rival missions of Venus, the two researchers we spoke to expressed their joy and excitement about having multiple missions to collect data. on this planet.

The three missions will be complementary: DAVINCI + will examine the atmosphere of Venus, VERITAS will examine Venus at the global level, and EnVision will image about a quarter of the surface in a much more focused way. The instruments will also be different, as EnVision has both radar imagery and a sonar to look below the surface.

“VERITAS is going to look at the deep subsoil, looking at the lithosphere,” explained Whitten. “But with EnVision, they will be able to observe the very close subsoil to understand what its structure might be.”

With the three missions combined, we should be able to learn about Venus from top to bottom, from the thick atmosphere to its deep core. Eventually, we might learn as much about this planet as we do about its best-explored sister, Mars.

“There are different goals for each of these [missions]”Said Whitten.” But overall all three of us are telling us that Venus is a key to understanding what is happening on Earth. It’s very exciting, the prospect of having a Venus program similar to a program March. “

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Us and our house | Cyprus Mail https://biofera.org/us-and-our-house-cyprus-mail/ https://biofera.org/us-and-our-house-cyprus-mail/#respond Wed, 08 Sep 2021 06:00:56 +0000 https://biofera.org/us-and-our-house-cyprus-mail/
Earth is the only planet we know where we can live

By Roberto Sciffo

The blue planet, planet Earth, is unique to our solar system and, given our current state of technological advancement, it is the only planet we know of where we can live.

The “big picture effect” is often expressed by those who have been in space, which is described as an awe-inspiring and transcendent experience that stays with the astronaut for many months, if not his entire life (for that I was studying engineering, one of my professors had the opportunity to go to space and came back a changed man). This experience of seeing the blue planet from space had profoundly transformed them. Their views on borders, politics, land ownership and locality have been challenged by the realization that the planet really exists as a closed biosphere bounded by the upper atmosphere, geology, ocean depths and a thin layer. of rock and soil that supports most of life. on the planet.

The evolution of this biosphere is about 3.5 billion years old, and over the past 800 million years we have experienced eight ice ages and five mass extinction events, however, in the past 11,700. about years, the climate has stabilized at a rare level. and comfortable interglacial period scientifically known as the Holocene epoch (from the Greek words ὅλος (holos, whole or whole) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning “entirely recent”. a decade, at +/- 1C over a period 11,000 years old, which means stable sea level and predictable weather conditions.

As the glaciers retreated to two permanent ice caps (which are essential for regulating global temperature), this opened up larger landscapes for human evolution, which, combined with the relatively higher atmospheric concentration of carbon, allowed all species to thrive, and changed our habits from hunter-gatherers to permanent settlers, who developed agriculture, domesticated animals, and led to the rise of civilizations (Greeks, Romans, Mayans, etc.).

This has evolved into a never-before-seen human population growth on the planet, which has changed the functionality of the planet, especially over the past 300 years. It took 2 million years for the world’s human population to reach 1 billion, and since then only 200 years to reach 7.8 billion.

Somewhere along this line we also moved from the Holocene era to the Anthropocene era (some argue it was around the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, others believe it was around the Second World War as mining and the use of chemicals began). Today, most scientists agree that human activity is now the engine of Earth’s systems and cycles; for example, 75% of the Earth’s land surface has been significantly altered by human actions, 50% of the world’s habitable land is used for cattle ranching, more than 50% of the oceans are actively fished, more material coming from the lithosphere (earth’s material) is displaced more than ever (far beyond the earth’s natural geological cycle), and about 50 years ago we pushed the average global temperature by 1C outside the average ” normal ”since the dawn of civilization.

But can we identify the systems that control the planet? Can we identify a quantitative point from which we risk triggering unpredictable changes? Are there tipping points that would engage the planet in a new state of irreversible change?

The Stockholm Resilience Center (a joint initiative of Stockholm University and the Beijer Institute for Ecological Economics at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) has been working with scientists around the world for decades to answer these same questions .

To date, they have established that there are nine planetary boundaries that we need to be aware of and control in order for humanity to continue living in harmony with the planet. These limits are neither concrete nor exclusive (they all influence each other), but carry a range of uncertainties from a low risk of uncertainty to a high risk of uncertainty.

Source: J. Lokrantz / Azote after Steffen et al. 2015.

(https://www.stockholmresilience.org/research/planetary-boundaries.html)

A summary of these limits:

Climate change: At the start of the Holocene, the atmospheric CO2 concentration was +260 ppm. The low risk was set at 350 ppm, a value that was measured during the period when the global temperature fluctuation was stable, with an uncertainty range between 400 ppm (low risk) and 450 ppm (high risk; with the effect of an overall temperature increase of 1.5 ° C). ). Today we are currently at around 415 ppm, reflecting a 1.1 ° C increase in average global temperature. Beyond 450 ppm, we risk pushing tipping points that would lead to irreversible changes without the possibility of a return to “normal”.

Change in land tenure (biomes): Modern agriculture is the main driver of land use change. It currently uses about 50% of the planet’s habitable land. For example, in Brazil alone, we have already lost about 20 percent of the Amazon rainforest (7 million km2), a loss about 750 times the total area of ​​the island of Cyprus.

Integrity of the biosphere: this focuses on two aspects; the role of genetically unique material; and the role of the biosphere in the functioning of the earth system. The world has seen an average decline of 68% in populations of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians since 1970; it is already the sign of a 6e mass extinction event.

Use of fresh water: although still not critical in use, distribution and access are imbalanced, and with a rapidly growing population, this can quickly change. 25% of all rivers no longer reach the ocean, which is another unsustainable impact.

Biogeochemical flows: currently the main influencers are Nitrogen (from industry and agriculture) and Phosphorus (almost entirely from fertilizers); other elements must be added.

Ocean acidification: Atmospheric CO2 increased hydrogen ions in the sea by 30%, ultimately reducing the ability of many marine species to form calcium carbonate, the building blocks of the skeletons and shells of many marine organisms.

Stratospheric ozone depletion: stable for about 15 years and is expected to improve due to the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances; an example where humanity has taken effective steps to bring the process back within the border.

Aerosol charge in the atmosphereParticulate air pollution is responsible for about 7 million deaths per year, and diffuses light, cooling the planet, which has a masking effect, reducing the actual state of global warming by about 40 percent. The border has still not been quantified.

New entities: nuclear waste, microplastics, heavy metals, etc… still not quantified and the impact is still unknown.

A recent documentary titled “Breaking Boundaries: The Science of Our Planet” (reported by Sir David Attenborough) presents these boundaries in a wonderful way.

Breakboundaries portrait 16x9 ext.

According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), we only have about a decade to go from “business as usual” and change things towards a “sustainable economy”. If we don’t, we will face drastic changes, such as potentially, by 2035, the inability to grow food during the summer in Europe, Asia and North America, for example.

All this science leads us to ask the question; is it possible for us to live on the planet, expanding to 9-10 billion people, and still live within these limits?

In fact, we should rephrase this… in order for us to live on a lovely planet to live on, we MUST find a way to live within these limits and in harmony with nature. It is not a matter.

To some it may seem uncomfortable, but it is actually an exciting time. What will be the next industrial revolution, and will it be based on principle rather than profit? What could education look like? What should business schools teach and what will be the new forms of work? How can governments change their funding / grant priorities and laws? In my next post, we’ll define what sustainability is and how we can work with it to ensure that we are moving towards a more positive impact on our blue planet.

Roberto Sciffo is the CTO of ISA Energy, an innovative project development company focused on sustainability and cross-sector decarbonization. Roberto has varied experience in engineering and biological medicine, environmental systems, integrated economies and systems thinking.

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A seismometer maps the anatomy of Mars https://biofera.org/a-seismometer-maps-the-anatomy-of-mars/ https://biofera.org/a-seismometer-maps-the-anatomy-of-mars/#respond Thu, 02 Sep 2021 22:13:53 +0000 https://biofera.org/a-seismometer-maps-the-anatomy-of-mars/

Unlike the eight orbiters that currently monitor the planet and the six rovers that have explored its chemistry and geology, InSight is the only spacecraft to directly probe the planet’s interior. Orbital measurements of Mars’ moment of inertia and gravity field have provided indirect clues about internal anatomy: its central metallic core, slimy mantle, and brittle crust. An international collaboration of 65 seismologists and planetologists from 12 countries has now published three papers that describe the first direct observations of these distinct layers. To date, the instrument has captured more than 1000 seismic events. Of the few hundred earthquakes in the sample, the vast majority were small and none exceeded a moment magnitude of 4. This low level of seismicity was not unexpected. Unlike Earth, whose well-defined tectonic plates intersect at the boundaries that wrap around the planet like the seam of a baseball, Mars has a single thick plate. The planet’s crust is thin, between 15 km and 47 km, and porous. And just below is the Mars lithosphere, a thick plate that includes the crust and reaches 400-600 km in the mantle. It is twice as deep as the Earth’s lithosphere.

The collaboration used seismic wave reflections from the core-mantle boundary to determine the size of the metallic core of Mars. They measured a radius of 1,830 km, about 100 km longer than previous estimates. This large size implies a relatively low core density, with a higher than expected concentration of light elements, such as sulfur, carbon, silicon and hydrogen, which are sequestered inside. Enrichment lowers the melting temperature of the nucleus, perhaps to a point that keeps the nucleus as a completely molten liquid. If this is the case – and the absence of shear waves passing through the nucleus suggests it – the absence of a solid inner core is probably one of the reasons why the geodynamo of Mars went extinct ago. billions of years and left the planet without a global magnetic field.

The large size of the core also influences the convection of heat from the mantle. The mantle of Mars is mineralogically similar to Earth’s upper mantle, but it never reaches the high pressures necessary to produce a stable phase transition from ringwoodite – a high pressure phase of olivine – to bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral on Earth. It is believed that the absence of this mineral on Mars allows its core to cool quickly. (A. Khan et al., Science 373, 434, 2021; B. Knapmeyer-Endrun et al., Science 373, 438, 2021; SC Stähler et al., Science 373, 443, 2021.)

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UNM Researcher Receives NSF Grants to Study Effects of Magma on Continental Plates: UNM Newsroom https://biofera.org/unm-researcher-receives-nsf-grants-to-study-effects-of-magma-on-continental-plates-unm-newsroom/ https://biofera.org/unm-researcher-receives-nsf-grants-to-study-effects-of-magma-on-continental-plates-unm-newsroom/#respond Sat, 28 Aug 2021 10:07:02 +0000 https://biofera.org/unm-researcher-receives-nsf-grants-to-study-effects-of-magma-on-continental-plates-unm-newsroom/

Mousumi Roy, Lecturer of the Regents and Associate Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of New Mexico, recently received two National Science Foundation Fellowships, including a Mid-Career Advancement Fellowship for her work. on the impact of the movement of magma on the continental plates.

Mousumi Roy

“I apply physics and mathematics to earth science problems to understand how the continental plates move, warp and change over time. Interestingly, these two proposals focus on how the continental plates change as magma moves through the plate, ”she said.

One of those grants is a collaborative project Roy is leading with scientists at the University of Colorado at Boulder, with a focus on the lithosphere, an area that includes the earth’s crust and the upper mantle. Roy said this is where most of the “actions” such as earthquakes and volcanoes involving plate tectonics take place.

“We are looking at rocks in the lower part of the lithosphere that are modified when magma, which floats, seeps or pushes through the channels of the lithosphere. When you have volcanoes erupting on the surface, that magma that has entered the crust is made up of molten material from the crust and material from below the crust in the lithosphere, ”she said. “We are trying to understand how the magma crosses the whole tectonic plate and what are the changes that take place within the tectonic plate when the magma passes through it. For example, does the plate change its chemistry? Or get hotter and weaker? “

Starting to answer some of these questions, Roy said his role in both proposals would be to analyze the chemistry of volcanic rocks and look for patterns in how magma interacted with the rock it passed through.

“Very small cryptic patterns are part of the history of volcanic rocks. My role will be to examine the chemical data and run numerical models using physics and mathematics to study how magma would move in the lithosphere, ”she said. “My role is to make an analogue of the system in the computer, using calculations of the rate and distribution of the most likely chemical reactions to determine the physical and chemical changes in the surrounding rock as the magma moves.”

The second grant is for a project of which she is the only principal investigator on: Destroy continental plates – unravel the role of magmatism. This project was developed with seed funding from a Women in STEM 2020 Award from Advance at UNM and involves examining the interior of tectonic plates, which typically have less tectonic activity. She said she is focusing on these areas as it will help better isolate the processes she wants to study.

“At the edges of the plates, there is a lot of movement and compression of the plates, and the rocks deform. A lot is going on there, so the reason we’re focusing on the interiors is because there is moderate rock deformation, so all of the chemistry patterns you see in the volcanic data are more directly related. during transport through the plate.

Roy said she would work with pre-existing data from the western United States and the Tibetan Plateau, another interior area of ​​the plate that has a lot of magmatic activity. In addition, she will apply machine learning in this project, which she says has never been used before in this area of ​​research.

“What’s very exciting is that we’re actually going to use machine learning to look at geochemical data, a new approach that has never been applied on a continental scale before. We have a huge dataset, so it will help us to understand which models can be inferred in a robust way from chemical data and to be able to multidimensionally search to group rocks by chemical characteristics without including preconceived notions ”, a- she declared. “At the end of the day, we want to try to understand if the processes that we are learning here in the western United States are happening there. [Tibetan Plateau] also.”

Roy said the work they are doing is very important in trying to understand the start of the breakup of the continents.

“When the Pangea broke apart, it is likely that the magma played a very important role in the dislocation, so it is important to understand the transport of the magma within the plates to understand how the continents separate.”

“Sometimes we have big earthquakes inside the plates. These aren’t completely quiet places and we know that because in New Mexico we have the Rio Grande fault, earthquakes in the Socorro Magma Body, and volcanoes. The level of danger and movement is not as fast as at the plate boundaries, but it is an important place to try to understand how the magma moves through the plates without the influence of the plate boundaries ”, she declared. “At the end of the day, the big thing we know happens is when you have a supercontinent, it’s a huge landmass and when it starts to shatter it sometimes shatters magma seeping into it. middle, which can weaken a huge landmass and form a plate boundary.

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Deepest diamonds on Earth are made up of ancient organisms, study finds https://biofera.org/deepest-diamonds-on-earth-are-made-up-of-ancient-organisms-study-finds/ https://biofera.org/deepest-diamonds-on-earth-are-made-up-of-ancient-organisms-study-finds/#respond Mon, 23 Aug 2021 13:15:20 +0000 https://biofera.org/deepest-diamonds-on-earth-are-made-up-of-ancient-organisms-study-finds/

The deepest and most wanted diamonds on Earth are made up of ancient living organisms, according to a new study.

Ultra-rare “ultra-deep continental diamonds” have isotope levels of carbon that suggest they are formed from organic matter, Australian researchers reveal.

These ultra-deep diamonds, which adorn the crown jewels, form more than 250 miles (400 km) below the Earth’s surface before being released in violent eruptions.

Most naturally occurring diamonds form in the Earth’s mantle at depths of around 100 miles (150 km), under extremely high pressures and temperatures exceeding 2,700 ° F.

Diamonds, which are made entirely of carbon atoms arranged in a dense network, are the hardest materials on Earth.

Diamonds Are Forever: Experts Say Ultra-Deep Continental Diamonds Have Isotope Levels Of Carbon That Suggest They Are Formed From Organic Matter

TYPES OF DIAMOND

– Lithospheric

Depths between 80 and 125 miles

– Oceanic

Found at the bottom of the ocean

– Super deep continental

Over 186 miles (300 km) under the continental crust

“This research not only helps to understand the Earth’s carbon cycle, but also has the potential to reveal more secrets of Earth’s dynamic history by tracking the past locations of mantle plumes and superplumes,” said study author Professor Zheng-Xiang Li at Curtin University.

“This can be achieved by mapping the distribution of continental and oceanic diamonds. ”

There are three main types of natural diamonds: “lithospheric”, “oceanic” and ultra-rare “ultra-deep continental” diamonds.

The lithospheric, formed at depths between about 80 and 125 miles (130-200 km) is the most common, accounting for 99 percent of all diamonds mined.

Oceanic ones, on the other hand, are found at the bottom of the ocean, while ultra-deep continental diamonds form more than 300 km below the continental crust.

The continental crust is the outermost layer of what’s called the lithosphere, the outermost rocky shell on Earth.

Earth's cross section shows the continental crust - the outermost layer of the lithosphere (the outermost rocky shell on Earth)

Earth’s cross section shows the continental crust – the outermost layer of the lithosphere (the outermost rocky shell on Earth)

All three types of diamonds are formed at different levels of the mantle with a varying mixture of organic and inorganic carbon, which can be determined by changes in an isotopic signature of carbon called δ13C (delta carbon thirteen).

Diamonds formed from organic carbon would suggest that they originate from a living organism, as organic carbon compounds are produced in living things.

Previous research has already suggested that δ13C levels in oceanic diamonds suggest an organic origin.

Ultra-deep continental diamonds contain a “surprising” amount of δ13C, similar to oceanic diamonds – and therefore also suggest an organic origin, researchers say.

One of the main differences between oceanic and ultra-deep continental diamonds is that the latter have widely varying levels of δ13C.

The diamonds of the crown jewels

The famous Hope Diamond, can also be

The famous Hope Diamond, can also be “super deep”

The giant gem-cut diamond that now adorns the Crown Jewels formed 400 miles below the Earth’s surface, three times deeper than other gemstones.

Analysis of similar diamonds by the Gemological Institute of America revealed that the Cullinan was a “super deep” diamond and one of the rarest objects on Earth.

The largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found, weighing 3,106.75 carats, the Cullinan was unearthed from a mine in South Africa in January 1905.

In 1907, the diamond was purchased by the government of the Transvaal Colony, who gave it to King Edward VII as a gift.

The king had the rough stone cut by Joseph Asscher & Company of Amsterdam – forming nine major stones (Cullinan I-IX) as well as 96 minor shining stones.

The two largest stones – Cullinan I and II – now form the centerpieces of the Crown Jewels and are found in the Sovereign’s Scepter with Cross and the Imperial State Crown.

Although they originally remained in Amsterdam, the other seven major stones were also acquired or donated over time to the British Royal Family.

The recent study also concluded that the famous Hope Diamond – currently in the collections of the Smithsonian Museum in the United States – may also be “super deep”.

The study’s authors believe this is because very deep nuclei envelop themselves in inorganic crusts in the lithosphere, before being ejected during eruptions.

Ultra-deep oceanic and continental diamonds form in the mantle transition zone – 400-600 km deep – using subducted organic carbon, and then are carried into the lithosphere by mantle plumes.

“Bringing new meaning to the old adage of trash trash, this research found that the Earth’s engine actually turns organic carbon into diamonds several hundred kilometers below the surface,” the study author said. , Dr Luc Doucet of Curtin University.

The diagram in the article explains the origin of types of diamonds.  (A) Super deep oceanic and continental diamonds (core only) form in the mantle transition zone using subducted organic carbon, then are brought to lithospheric levels by mantle plumes

The diagram in the article explains the origin of types of diamonds. (A) Super deep oceanic and continental diamonds (core only) form in the mantle transition zone using subducted organic carbon, then are brought to lithospheric levels by mantle plumes

“The bloating of rocks in the Earth’s deeper mantle, called mantle plumes, then bring the diamonds back to the earth’s surface via volcanic eruptions for humans to enjoy as sought-after gems.

“As recycling becomes a modern necessity for our sustainable survival, we were particularly surprised to learn from this research that Mother Nature has been showing us how to recycle in style for billions of years. ”

The research provides a model that explains the formation and location of the three main types of diamonds, according to the team.

Hot air balloon rocks in the Earth's deeper mantle, called mantle plumes, carry diamonds to the Earth's surface via volcanic eruptions (stock image)

Hot air balloon rocks in the Earth’s deeper mantle, called mantle plumes, carry diamonds to the Earth’s surface via volcanic eruptions (stock image)

“This is the first time that the three main types of diamonds have been linked to mantle plumes, hot rocks swollen by plate tectonics and the cycle of supercontinents from deep within the Earth,” said Professor Li , author of the study.

It remains a mystery as to why the diamonds formed in the mantle transition zone are formed only from recycled organic carbon.

“It might have something to do with the physico-chemical environment there,” added Professor Li.

“It is not uncommon for a new scientific discovery to raise more questions that require further investigation.”

The study was published in Scientific reports.

HOW ARE DIAMONDS FORMED?

Natural diamonds formed more than 3 billion years ago deep in the earth’s crust under conditions of intense heat and pressure.

These conditions cause carbon atoms to crystallize, forming diamonds.

The diamonds are found at a depth of approximately 150 to 200 kilometers (93 to 124 miles).

Temperatures here average 900 to 1,300 degrees Celsius, with pressures of 45 to 60 kilobars (roughly 50,000 times the atmospheric pressure at the Earth’s surface).

Under these conditions, molten lamproite and kimberlite (known as magma) also form in the Earth’s upper mantle, and they expand at a rapid rate.

This expansion shatters the magma, forcing it to rise to the Earth’s surface and dragging diamondiferous rocks with it.

The magma erupts forming a “pipe” on the surface, and as it cools, the magma hardens to form kimberlite, settling in vertical structures called kimberlite pipes.

These pipes are the most important sources of diamonds, but only about 1 in 200 kimberlite pipes contain gem-quality diamonds.

The name ‘Kimberlite’ comes from the South African town of Kimberley, where the first diamonds were found in this type of rock.

Source: Cape Diamond Museum

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35 more seismic observatories by the end of this year in India https://biofera.org/35-more-seismic-observatories-by-the-end-of-this-year-in-india/ https://biofera.org/35-more-seismic-observatories-by-the-end-of-this-year-in-india/#respond Sun, 22 Aug 2021 15:50:01 +0000 https://biofera.org/35-more-seismic-observatories-by-the-end-of-this-year-in-india/

Every day we hear about earthquakes being felt in different regions. The Indian subcontinent is an area at high risk for earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, tsunamis and landslides. According to the seismic zoning mapping, India is divided into 4 zones. These areas are divided according to the estimate of the intensity of the earthquake. India is divided into Zone 2, Zone 3, Zone 4 and Zone 5. While Zone 2 is the least dangerous, Zone 5 is the most dangerous.

Earthquakes always bring destruction with them. The occurrence of an earthquake is a natural process, beyond human power. Therefore, prevention is the only way. In addition, the most important aspect is being able to accurately predict the time of the earthquake. This work is carried out by seismic observatories.

35 next seismic observatories in India

The Indian government has decided to increase the number of seismic observatories to create a dense network of observatories across the country. This would allow each region to prepare in advance for an earthquake.

Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh, Department of Science and Technology, said 35 seismic observatories will be set up in India by the end of this year. He added that over the next five years, 100 more such observatories would be built in the country by the central government.

Only 115 observatories currently

At present, there are only 115 observatories in the country. Addressing the inaugural function of the Joint Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) – International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth’s Interior (IASPEI), the Minister of ‘Union Jitendra Singh said that in the last six and a half decades since independence, that is, in 65 years of history, there were only 115 seismic observatories in the country, but under Under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, there is now going to be a huge increase in the number of seismic observatories in the country.

How does an earthquake occur?

The earthquake is characterized by strong shaking of the ground and strong shaking of structures above the ground. According to the National Disaster Management Authority, this occurs due to the release of pressure transmitted by the moving lithospheric or crustal plates.

The earth’s crust is divided into 7 large plates 80 km thick. It moves slowly and steadily inside the Earth and over many smaller plates. Earthquakes are primarily tectonic, meaning that moving plates are primarily responsible for ground shaking.

Earthquakes in India

Major earthquakes occur around the Himalayas. Urbanization, widespread unscientific construction and exploitation of natural resources have led to an increase in the number of earthquakes in the Indian subcontinent.

In the past 15 years, the country has suffered 10 major earthquakes, which have claimed more than 20,000 lives and brought wealth to the country. According to the current map of the country’s seismic zone, 59% of India’s land area is subject to a moderate to severe earthquake hazard warning, which means India is prone to earthquakes of magnitude 7 and more.

In fact, the entire Himalayan region is considered favorable for large 8.0 magnitude earthquakes. There have been 4 such earthquakes in a relatively short period of 50 years, which have proven this point. A magnitude 8.7 earthquake struck Shillong in 1897, Kangra of magnitude 8.0 in 1905, magnitude 8.3 along the Bihar-Nepal border in 1934 and magnitude 8.6 on the Assam-Tibet border in 1950.

According to the National Disaster Management Authority, scientific publications have warned of the possibility of a powerful earthquake in the Himalayan region, which could harm the lives of millions of people in India.

The Northeast region is more vulnerable

The northeast region of the country continues to receive moderate to severe earthquakes at frequent intervals. There have been several light earthquakes in the region since 1950. On average, the region has been struck by one earthquake with a force of over 6.0 per year.

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are also located on the interplaque border and are subject to frequent destructive earthquakes.

Role of the IAGA

Speaking at the event, Union Minister Dr Singh said that as a recognized science of the composition, structure and processes that govern our planet, it has probably reached its peak today as human society grapples with challenges at multiple levels of interactions with Mother Earth. . IAGA and IASPEI will move the country forward.

The minister expressed the hope that the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) – the joint scientific assembly of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth’s Interior (IASPEI) will play the role as a catalyst by bringing together more researchers and practitioners from the global community to work on issues related to the dissemination of science in society.

He said it is a conducive environment for the two scientific communities to come together to advance research in their niche and pursue new avenues of interdisciplinary investigations. The Minister added that the link between the structure of the deep earth and geomagnetism, and the role of fluids in the nucleation of earthquakes are some examples to underline the importance of the Joint Scientific Assembly of these two associations to promote interdisciplinary research.

IAGA and IASPEI will jointly organize a joint meeting in 2021, which will be organized by CSIR-NGRI in collaboration with the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India. Both institutions are expected to take the country to higher heights in this area.

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Deep diamonds have a surprising organic composition https://biofera.org/deep-diamonds-have-a-surprising-organic-composition/ https://biofera.org/deep-diamonds-have-a-surprising-organic-composition/#respond Fri, 20 Aug 2021 09:01:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/deep-diamonds-have-a-surprising-organic-composition/

While most diamonds form under continents, at depths between 150 and 300 kilometers, a document published in Scientific reports has shown that two rarer types of diamonds – those found in oceanic rocks and those that form more than 300 kilometers below the continental crust – have a common and unexpected origin.

The Curtin University research team found that oceanic and ultra-deep continental diamonds “actually share the same compositions,” according to Dr. Luc Doucet, lead author of the article.

“The composition of carbon is organic, which means that it is the organic matter that formed the diamonds.”

Diamonds are made from carbon placed under high pressure, but this carbon can come from different sources: either organic carbon, from once living matter, or inorganic carbon – like carbonate minerals, which are commonly found in the rocks.

According to Doucet, it’s surprising that diamonds formed so deep below the Earth’s surface are mostly made up of organic matter.

“Particularly in the ocean, organic carbon is very minor [in abundance] compared to inorganic carbon, ”he says.

If ultra-deep diamonds form mostly from organic carbon, Doucet says that means there’s some sort of carbon fixation process going on – or maybe something even more complicated is going on. during their training.

The researchers propose that once formed, these very deep diamonds are brought to the surface via “mantle plumes” – material from the Earth’s mantle rising to the surface.

“Raising rocks from the Earth’s deeper mantle, called mantle plumes, then brings the diamonds back to the Earth’s surface via volcanic eruptions,” says Doucet.

The researchers examined a range of the most common oceanic, deep continental and lithospheric diamonds, each of which were collected and tested in previous studies. They concluded that oceanic and continental diamonds had organic origins by examining their “isotopic signature” – the different concentrations of slightly heavier and lighter carbon atoms in diamonds.

Doucet says this research is useful in understanding how carbon on the surface – and in the atmosphere – can enter the earth. It has particular implications for carbon capture and storage.

“Diamonds are very good targets for understanding what’s going on inside the earth,” he says.

“They’re made of carbon, so they can help us understand carbon cycles. “


Read more:

Originally posted by Cosmos under the title Deep Diamonds Have a Surprising Organic Composition

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The definition of ecocide | WilmerHale https://biofera.org/the-definition-of-ecocide-wilmerhale/ https://biofera.org/the-definition-of-ecocide-wilmerhale/#respond Wed, 11 Aug 2021 19:06:36 +0000 https://biofera.org/the-definition-of-ecocide-wilmerhale/

The climate crisis, an issue that once took the form of abstract temperature charts and projections, is now a dizzying parade of broken weather records and natural disasters. The time therefore seemed opportune when in June, the editorial group of experts of the Stop Ecocide Foundation (SEF) published his definition of the crime of “ecocide”.

Currently, under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), there are four crimes, including genocide. SEF is an NGO that advocates changing the statute to add ecocide as a fifth crime. The publication of the proposed definition is an important step towards achieving this goal.

Definition

[U]lawful or unjustified acts committed with the knowledge that there is a substantial probability of serious and widespread or long-term damage to the environment caused by such acts.

News Reus

There are two types of acts which constitute gateways to criminal liability under the definition. First, “illegal” acts. Although there is an inconsistency in what constitutes illegality at the national level, this is the simplest route, as the prosecutor can simply report the violation of national law. Under this gateway, agents of an automobile company convicted of emissions fraud in violation of national law, for example, could be guilty of ecocide.

The second gateway is “uninteresting acts”. This could, depending on your background, bring to mind the offense of foolish or furious driving, where it actually means outright recklessness, or the Rome Statute article 8 definition of war crimes, in particular destruction and massive appropriation of goods. Unsurprisingly, ecocide is closer to the latter. He defines wanton as, ‘with reckless disregard of the damage which would be manifestly excessive in relation to the expected social and economic benefits ”.

This footbridge poses a more difficult route. The word “clearly” creates a high bar for the charge. The defendants will argue on their knowledge (or their ignorance) of the damage or the extent of the damage. It will be interesting to see how the court approaches the proportionality test and how, for example, profit margins are measured against habitat loss.

Men

The defendant must have had ‘knowing that there is a substantial probability of serious and widespread or long-term damage to the environment caused by such acts’. The usual mens rea for crimes under the Rome Statute is the awareness of a virtual certainty that the event will occur. Ecocide casts the net wider – the defendant need only know that there was a substantial likelihood of the damage occurring.

“Severe” is defined as “Very serious adverse changes, disturbances or damage to any element of the environment, including serious impacts on human life or on natural, cultural or economic resources‘. This part of the definition should help distinguish ordinary domestic environmental offenses from ecocides.

Not only does the environment cover a range of resources, but it is further defined as covering the biosphere (ecosystems), cryosphere (frozen ice and ground), lithosphere (crust and upper mantle), hydrosphere (seas, oceans). , lakes, etc.) and the atmosphere (gas) and outer space. If a billionaire space explorer commits an act of ecocide en route to Mars, they will be in range.

Finally, the potential damage must be widespread or long term. ‘Large’ means it stretches’beyond a limited geographical area, crosses the borders of a State, or is suffered by an entire ecosystem or a large number of human beings ”. The inclusion of a “large number of human beings” suggests that there will be some overlap with patterns of fact that give rise to collective environmental actions, for example water contamination.

“Long term” is defined as irreversible, or which cannot be corrected by natural recovery “within a reasonable time. ‘ This is more likely to be evaluated in the context of human life than, say, a geological epoch. The dumping of nuclear waste would likely fall within this part of the definition.

Evaluation

International criminal law is an imperfect tool for solving large environmental problems. Problems such as climate degradation require political and economic solutions. The definition of “tort” is an ambitious attempt to apply international criminal law to these broad issues. The ICC will have to balance the environmental damage of an activity against its economic and social benefits – a difficult task.

On the other hand, the effects of the climate crisis bear a striking comparison with the effects of war (massive deaths, destruction, displacement of populations, etc.), the natural domain of the ICC. It is easy to think of cases that would fit perfectly and logically into the definition of ecocide, in particular the “illegal acts” gateway. Environmental crimes often have an international impact, why shouldn’t they be prosecuted internationally?

A 2019 UN report found that to meet the Paris Agreement’s 1.5 ° C global warming limit, the world must reduce carbon emissions by 7.6% each year from 2020 to 2030 Emissions decreased by 5.8% in 2020 and are expected to increase by 4.8%. % in 2021. Meanwhile, the government spokesperson for COP 26 (the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference) recently wrote: “No one will be forced to give up their gas boiler or their diesel car. overnight, but in 10 to 15 years there will be change. ‘We don’t know what kind of a world we will be living in 10 or 15 years from now, but it could well be a world in which the ICC is prosecuting people for ecocide.

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New evidence of geologically recent Venusian volcanism https://biofera.org/new-evidence-of-geologically-recent-venusian-volcanism/ https://biofera.org/new-evidence-of-geologically-recent-venusian-volcanism/#respond Tue, 10 Aug 2021 18:23:18 +0000 https://biofera.org/new-evidence-of-geologically-recent-venusian-volcanism/

Magellan SAR image of Aramaiti Corona. Narina Tholus (center left) appears as two adjacent domes superimposed on the outer west fracture ring. Credit: Institute of Planetary Sciences

New data analysis techniques are finding evidence of recent volcanism in old data from Magellanic spacecraft. It is not known if this activity occurs today, or if it occurred tens of millions of years ago, but geologically speaking, both cases are recent. This adds to the growing body of evidence that the volcanoes of Venus did not go extinct as long as many thought. This work was conducted by Planetary Science Institute (PSI) researchers Megan Russell and Catherine Johnson.

In the 31 years since NASA’s Magellan spacecraft orbiting Venus, researchers have used the mission’s radar imagery, topography, and gravity mapping to understand the history of the surface. of this cloud-covered world. The first results clearly showed that Venus has far fewer impact craters on its surface than its cousins ​​Mars and Mercury, and that the craters it does have are scattered randomly across the planet. Craters build up over time, and Venus’ low number of craters means it has an area that was sort of cleaned up around 300 million to 1 billion years ago. It is not known whether this was a catastrophic event that resurfaced both across the entire planet, or on-going randomly distributed events that systematically resurfaced on Venus over time, or a combination of the two options. To understand what happened, it is necessary to understand when the volcanoes were active.

“Whether Venus had geologically recent or ongoing volcanism has been a lingering conundrum of the Magellan mission: we still don’t have a smoking weapon on it, but more and more evidence suggests a planet active recently and potentially currently, “said Catherine Johnson, PSI Principal Scientist.

As computers improved, it became possible to do more and more with the finished Magellan dataset. Russell and Johnson used a high-resolution stereo topography dataset generated by other researchers to examine a volcano bordering 350 kilometers through Aramaiti Corona.

Crowns are roughly circular features surrounded by a ring of cracks that roughly resemble a crown, and are considered large faults. At the level of certain crowns, such as Aramaiti, volcanoes and / or lava flows are observed near or on these fractures. The volcano studied by PSI researchers was among the lucky 20% of the surface of Venus to be imaged in stereo with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which revealed elevations through the 3-D structure, offering a better view than a simple picture.






Credit: Institute of Planetary Sciences

“Instead of looking at the surface of the volcano or the flows, we look at how the volcano deforms the ground around it. In response to the weight of the volcano, the ground around it bends, as if we were bending a plastic ruler,” Megan Russell said. , associate researcher at PSI and principal author of Evidence for a Locally Thinned Lithosphere Associated With Recent Volcanism at Aramaiti Corona, Venus which appears in Journal of Geophysical Research Planets. “The same type of deformation is observed in the curvature of the seabed around the Hawaiian Islands. From this deformation we can infer properties such as the local heat flow to the volcano.”

To go beyond the simple indication of the youngest versus the oldest, it is necessary to use complex computer models to model the deformation of the surface. It is from this modeled deformation that properties such as heat flow can be deduced.

Over time, these types of structures can evolve and the degree of deformation observed indicates the age or youth of a feature and the amount of heat that can flow below the surface.

Russell goes on to explain, “Modeling studies suggest that the shape and topography of this crown indicate that it is also geologically young and that geologically young volcanism is associated with it. ”

This particular structure appears to be unique in the limited Magellan dataset. Only seven other crowns in the 20% of Venus that Magellan studied with SAR have steep-sided volcanoes on or near their fractured ring like the one studied by Russell and Johnson. In addition, the stereo topography data on the feature in this study was of particularly high quality. With three future missions planned for Venus, this team looks forward to exploring this question in more detail in the future. “Fortunately for those of us who were fortunate enough to start our careers working on the Magellan mission, there are now three new missions expected to fly to Venus over the next decade.”

For Johnson, Venus has already played a role for several decades; she worked on her doctorate. in 1984-1989 with a guest investigator on Magellan. For Russell, this job is a great start to his career. This research was carried out while Russell was a gradu


“Ice floe” tectonics reveal the geological secrets of Venus


More information:
MB Russell et al, Evidence for a Locally Thinly Lithosphere Associated With Recent Volcanism at Aramaiti Corona, Venus, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets (2021). DOI: 10.1029 / 2020JE006783

Provided by the Institute of Planetary Sciences


Quote: New evidence of geologically recent Venusian volcanism (2021, August 10) retrieved August 11, 2021 from https://phys.org/news/2021-08-evidence-geologically-recent-roitsian-volcanism.html

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