Hydrosphere – Biofera http://biofera.org/ Tue, 21 Jun 2022 15:34:25 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://biofera.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/biofera-icon-150x150.png Hydrosphere – Biofera http://biofera.org/ 32 32 High Spatial Resolution Prediction of Tritium (3H) in Contemporary Global Precipitation https://biofera.org/high-spatial-resolution-prediction-of-tritium-3h-in-contemporary-global-precipitation/ Fri, 17 Jun 2022 18:48:28 +0000 https://biofera.org/high-spatial-resolution-prediction-of-tritium-3h-in-contemporary-global-precipitation/

Three best-fitting multiple regression models were found to accurately predict 3H in global annual precipitation. All models had a high degree of confidence and accuracy, whether the model was (i) global, (ii) extratropical or (iii) tropical (supplementary SM1 material). The most parsimonious multiple regression predictive models were:

$${text{Global}},^{{3}} {text{H }} ,left( {{text{TU}}} right) , = , 0.0313{text { wLT }} + , 2.56 , 10^{{ – {6}}} , {text{DTC }} , {-} , 0.2077{text{ AT }} + ,6,2068{text{ LMF }}+, 0.0056{text{ LONG }}-, 0.0279{text{ NLR }}+, {61}. {3961}$$

(1)

which is a first global model resulting in an R2= 0.79 (p< 0.01), where air temperature (AT), wLT, LMF, and DTC explained 26%, 24%, 17%, and 9%, respectively, of the overall variance (net long-wave radiation [NLR] only had a minor part). As expected, these regressors are the well-known effects of temperature and continentality on 3H-distributions9.24. The significant response from wLT asserted the need to specifically consider the differences between the northern and southern hemispheres in the distribution of their land masses. However, the global model (Eq. 1) did not perform as well in tropical and low latitude regions. As a result, it has been beneficial to develop the regional extra-tropical and secondary tropical models (see Discussion in23):

$${text{Extratropical}},^{{3}} {text{H }} , = , – 0.2505{text{ AT }} + , 8.0153{text{ LMF }} + , { 3}.0{4 ,1}0^{{ – {6}}}, {text{ DTC }} + , 0.0053{text{LONG }} + , 0.0176{text{ wLT}} ,{-} ,0.0011{text{ ALT }} + ,71.7114$$

(2)

giving an R2= 0.81 (p< 0.01), and with AT, LMF, wLT and DTC each explaining 24%, 23%, 19% and 12% of the variability (ALT and LONG were less relevant). For the tropical and low latitude model, a different set of predictor variables was needed, due to 3H production rate and substantial dilution by3H tropical ocean moisture sources:

$${text{Tropical}},^{{3}} {text{H }} ,= , 0.0513{text{ wLT }} + , 2.2882{text{LMF }} + , 0.0061{text{ AT }}{-} , 0.0399{text{ OLR }} ,{-} , 0.059{text{ CPN }} + , 0.0003{text { PP }} + , { 9}. {3437}$$

(3)

which gave an R2 = 0.62, p < 0.01) and whose variability was explained 27% by wLT, 15% by LMF, and the remaining variance equally distributed over four climatic parameters (AT, outgoing long wave radiation [OLR]amount of convective precipitation [CPN] and PP). Wherever it's enough 3H data was available, RCWIP clusters were calculated with the appropriate regionalized regression equations. For clusters with 3Due to lack of data, the tropical and extra-tropical models were used to replace the global model. The resulting prediction models were applied and merged for each 0.1 × 0.1 degree grid cell using fuzzy clustering climate zone membership fractions.22to create a single unified prediction map of 3H in the annual global precipitation (Fig. 1).

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Global Fog Signal Market Size 2022 and Growth Forecast to 2028 https://biofera.org/global-fog-signal-market-size-2022-and-growth-forecast-to-2028/ Fri, 17 Jun 2022 11:07:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/global-fog-signal-market-size-2022-and-growth-forecast-to-2028/

A global fog signal The market research report provides an in-depth study of the current global market situation. The research reports offer an in-depth analysis of revenue, growth, market definition, scope, potential, segmentation, and technology trends to understand the future and current prospects of the market. The report covers Porter’s Five Forces Analysis, which identifies and analyzes five competitive forces that shape the industry and helps determine the weaknesses and strengths of an industry. The report is also collected from sources such as journals, websites, mergers, collaborations and business acquisitions.

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Top Key Players Covered in the Fog Signal Market:

Pharos Marine Automatic Power, Orga BV, SICE srl, Woori Marine, Sabik Marine, Perko, Mobilis, Plastimo, Kahlenberg Industries, LALIZAS, Hydrosphere

The research presents a comprehensive analysis of the influence of the pandemic on the entire industry, as well as an overview of the market scenarios before and after COVID-19. All of our reports will be edited prior to distribution to take into account the impact of COVID-19 to offer a more accurate market forecast. The research study examines numerous market segments based on type, application, and geographies. The research also includes a competitive analysis of leading Fog Signal product vendors along with their most recent advancements. This study is divided into three sections: type, application and region, with market size and forecast for each area. For the forecasted period, compound annual growth rates for all segments have also been presented.

Global Fog Signals Market Segmentation:

Fog Signal market is segmented by Type and Application. The growth between segments over the period 2022-2028 provides accurate calculations and forecasts of revenue by type and application in terms of volume and value. This analysis can help you grow your business by targeting eligible niches.

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Market segmentation:

Fog Signals Market by Type:

Fog horns, bells, sirens, others

Fog Signals Market by Application:

Offshore wind farm, oil and gas platform, ship, others

Market segmented by region:

  • North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)
  • Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia, Italy and Rest of Europe)
  • Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Southeast Asia and Australia)
  • South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and rest of South America)
  • Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, South Africa and Rest of Middle East and Africa)

The research covers factors impacting major market players as well as current technical breakthroughs. The study includes in-depth statistical data to help leading organizations better understand industry operations. The report examines each major organization and player involved in industry growth, while providing a comprehensive assessment of the competitive environment. Furthermore, the survey examines the market challenges, opportunities, restraints, development drivers, trends, and the company’s production network, among others. It also provides information on the attractiveness of each section, as well as its growth rate and market size, which helps in determining which segment to invest or promote in.

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Points covered in the table of contents:

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 2: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

CHAPTER 3: MARKET OVERVIEW

CHAPTER 4: GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES BY SEGMENT

CHAPTER 5: MARKET LANDSCAPE

CHAPTER 6: MARKET BY TYPE (2016-2028)

CHAPTER 7 MARKET BY APPLICATION (2016-2028)

CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS

CHAPTER 9: OTHER KEY PLAYERS

CHAPTER 10: WORLD MARKET BY REGION

CHAPTER 11 ANALYST’S VIEWPOINT AND CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 12 ADJECANT MARKET

CHAPTER 13 DISCLAIMER

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3D printing at the service of saving coral reefs https://biofera.org/3d-printing-at-the-service-of-saving-coral-reefs/ Tue, 14 Jun 2022 09:55:42 +0000 https://biofera.org/3d-printing-at-the-service-of-saving-coral-reefs/

Coral reefs are among the most sensitive ecosystems to climate change, and thus constitute a perfect example of studying the changes taking place on our planet. Scientists are working hard to protect and regenerate them using a wide variety of innovative approaches.

It is estimated that around 500 million people and 25% of all marine species depend on coral reefs, either directly or indirectly. The largest coral reef, about 2300 km long, which has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, is the Great Barrier Reef, located off the east coast of Australia. Visible even from space, the Great Barrier Reef is home to hundreds of species of coral, fish and molluscs, several species of sea turtles, and even whales and dolphins.

However, marine tourism and fishing are not all that coral reefs have to offer; multitude of creatures living on and around them offer researchers a unique opportunity to discover new chemical compounds that may aid in the development of new drugs. Unsurprisingly, many scientists familiar with the benefits that can be derived from coral reefs are now sounding the alarm: the world’s coral reefs are dying.

The threats they face are many, and to make matters worse, they stem from all sorts of different reasons. The most important danger factor is undoubtedly climate change with its rise in temperatures which leads to the discoloration of corals. However, this is not the only problem, as pollution and ocean acidification – a subject briefly described here – are equally destructive. Ocean acidification is not caused by the dumping of acids into the water, but by the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which is increasing globally. The CO2 is then “absorbed” by the oceans as part of a natural carbon biogeochemical cycle that involves both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere (i.e. marine and inland waters), where it exists not only as dissolved carbon dioxide, but also as bicarbonate. and carbonate ions. In addition, ocean currents transport huge amounts of carbon deep in the water layers. CO2 does not directly affect the discoloration of corals, but it significantly hinders their recovery by reducing the concentration of their natural building block – aragonite.

Various reports show that by 2050, up to 95% of the world’s coral reefs will be exposed to heat stress leading to coral bleaching. This probably wouldn’t be such a big problem if it weren’t for the fact that natural reef regeneration is a slow process. In addition, destroyed coral reefs are less likely to reproduce: for example, the average annual growth of the Great Barrier Reef is only 5 to 8 mm! The slow regeneration is therefore the reason why up to 50% of coral reefs have been irretrievably destroyed so far. Unsurprisingly, attempts are being made to protect and regenerate coral reefs and so far around 27% have been saved by declaring them nature reserves. These attempts include a number of methods, such as assisted reproduction, modifications to produce organisms that are more resistant to heat stress, or, for example, artificial reproduction.

It has already been pointed out that reef regeneration is a time-consuming process, however, interesting research results have been published recently regarding 3D printing technologies used to regenerate coral reefs. In ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2021, 37, 12634-12645, the researchers present a method that not only simplifies the procedure for the regeneration of coral reefs, but above all accelerates the regeneration process. For this purpose, 3D printed structures made of calcium carbonate were used. To put it simply, scientists have succeeded in creating an artificial coral skeleton based on the natural skeleton which ensures rapid growth of coral micro-fragments, because there is no need to build a calcium skeleton which forms the base of the structure of the reef. . Unlike other similar methods, this technology is based on the passive colonization of the printed substrate, ie the attachment of coral micro-fragments to the printed skeleton.

3D printing technology is now an integral part of our lives. This not only involves using commercially available filaments such as PLA for “figurine printing”, but is also the subject of extensive research focused on the possibility of employing a number of materials to create entire building constructions (such as the whole bridge running in the Netherlands) or using organic “microbial ink” material to print “living material”, i.e. special capsules for medicines . A number of other uses are also contemplated which are outside the scope of this article. While in 2010 there were only a few publications describing 3D printing-related inventions in patent databases, their number exceeded 4,000 in 2020, with no less than 5,000 publications in 2021. This only proves that 3D printing technology is currently used in many areas of technology, leading to the development of increasingly innovative solutions. In addition to man-made components, living micro-fragments are also more often used to help protect the environment that we as a human race are so determined to destroy.

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German radar satellite TerraSAR-X – 15 years in space and still in perfect condition https://biofera.org/german-radar-satellite-terrasar-x-15-years-in-space-and-still-in-perfect-condition/ Tue, 14 Jun 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/german-radar-satellite-terrasar-x-15-years-in-space-and-still-in-perfect-condition/

Fifteen years – who would have thought? The German TerraSAR-X radar satellite, which was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 08:14 local time on June 15, 2007, was originally designed to last five and a half years – until the end of 2012. It provided data of exceptional quality since then, regardless of weather conditions, cloud cover and sunshine. The TerraSAR-X science mission and the satellite itself are operated by the German Aerospace Center.

As it turns 15, TerraSAR-X can look back 83,050 Earth orbits, having traveled about 3.59 billion kilometers – a great distance. If the satellite were heading away from Earth in a straight line, it would have crossed Uranus’ orbit at the end of 2018 and would now be roughly halfway between the orbits of Uranus and Neptune. At 15 years old, TerraSAR-X is still in pristine condition.

Thanks to its robust design, combined with the highest measurement accuracy and stability, the satellite always provides radar images that far exceed the initial mission requirements. The high-resolution data and continuous view provided by TerraSAR-X enables researchers around the world to document and better understand the changes occurring on Earth, while facilitating early detection of irreversible damage and identifying where intervention is needed. . These data provide an essential basis for developing measures at the political and social level.



A data repository and a research topic
Over its lifetime, TerraSAR-X has acquired more than 400,000 radar images, collecting 1.34 petabytes of data in the process. This equates to 1,340,000 gigabytes or the streaming of approximately 270,000 high-definition feature films, which would take approximately 60 years to unfold. The satellite heritage becomes more complete, more valuable and more widely used every day. More than 1100 leading researchers from 64 countries now use and process its data in 1875 ongoing research projects.

Not only does the range of applications encompass the entire geoscience spectrum, including geology, glaciology, oceanography, meteorology and hydrology, but radar data is also essential for environmental research, land mapping land use, vegetation monitoring, and urban and infrastructure planning. Cartography, navigation, logistics, crisis management, defense and security also rely on TerraSAR-X data.

The satellite itself is also the subject of research and development, particularly in the field of radar technology. Thanks to its flexible design, the radar system allows experiments to be carried out using new imaging modes such as “super wide angle” and “super zoom”, similar to a camera equipped with different lenses.

Officially called “WideScanSAR” and “Staring Spotlight Mode”, they were introduced during the mission and then made available to users. The satellite continues to conduct radar experiments to test new techniques that could be used on future radar missions.



A third dimension with TanDEM-X
Since June 21, 2010, TerraSAR-X has been accompanied by the TanDEM-X satellite, of almost identical design. TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X form the first reconfigurable Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometer in space, recording precise height information to create digital elevation models. This means that TerraSAR-X is now used for two missions – the original TerraSAR-X mission and the TanDEM-X mission for three-dimensional mapping of the Earth’s surface.

Despite its unprecedented longevity, a day will eventually come when TerraSAR-X will no longer be able to perform its duties. Resources such as thruster and battery capacity are regularly depleted. However, if there are no major incidents, TerraSAR-X could remain operational until the end of the 2020s.



Environmental observation of the future – Tandem-L
With the TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X satellite missions, the DLR has set new standards in radar remote sensing. Its experts are already working on the next generation of radar satellites for climate research and environmental monitoring, in the form of Tandem-L, a highly innovative radar satellite mission.

This could see Germany providing a system for objective environmental recording and observation of environmental changes all over the world. The goal is to provide essential information to solve highly relevant problems. For example, the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calls for the development of climate protection measures and the review of measures taken on a global scale, as a matter of urgency.

With Tandem-L, it would be possible to record a large number of dynamic processes in the biosphere, geosphere, cryosphere and hydrosphere with unprecedented quality and resolution. The new constellation of satellites could provide up-to-date 3D imagery of Earth’s entire landmass on a weekly basis and simultaneously measure seven critical climate variables. In doing so, Tandem-L would make a significant contribution to a better understanding of the processes that are now seen as drivers of local and global climate change.


Related links

TerraSAR-X at DLR

Earth Observation News – Suppliers, Technology and Application



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EARTH OBSERVATION
The SARah-1 Earth observation satellite built by Airbus is ready for launch

Vandenberg, CA (SPX) June 14, 2022

The Airbus-built “SARah-1” Earth observation satellite, subcontracted to OHB System AG, was transported from Friedrichshafen, Germany to Vandenberg, California, USA, and is currently underway preparation for launch in June 2022 and subsequent operation by Airbus in space. SARah is a new operational reconnaissance system consisting of several satellites and a ground segment, which was developed on behalf of the German Bundeswehr. As a successor system, it replaces the current SAR-Lupe system … read more

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Ignorance of Wealth – Resilience https://biofera.org/ignorance-of-wealth-resilience/ Tue, 07 Jun 2022 10:10:43 +0000 https://biofera.org/ignorance-of-wealth-resilience/

It’s a long-established truism that wealth and status breed complacency and a kind of smug sense of propriety – which then turns into social blindness, self-centeredness and not a bit of stupidity. The richest person in the room is also most likely the dumbest. Yet he (and yes, that is often the case…) is also completely convinced that he is the smartest and the most capable, certainly the most qualified to give orders to others. And this culture indulges in this fantasy.

That’s partly because this culture is run by these rich guys, but there’s also a high degree of reluctance to call them out on their stupidity. We talk about the naked emperor, but we do what he says nonetheless. In fact, many of us go to extreme lengths to reassure him about his questionable choices. While it’s true that most people think the rich are idiots in blinders, it’s also true that this society treats those same idiots with a deference that borders on reverence. We love the rich. And so we acquiesce to their rules and are complicit in their power. We put idiots in charge just because they have money.

This has devastating effects. We regularly lament these days about our crisis of imagination. We are facing existential crises, and yet no one with any influence has any idea what to do about it. The typical strategy seems to be “more or less the same” on steroids. Who would suggest that doing the same thing is going to have different results? And not only different, but opposite results! It’s silly. But then that we have come to this point to begin with, when there have been strong warnings for well over a generation of the likely effects of depleting all our resources or polluting the atmosphere and from the hydrosphere or taking it all from everyone so that a very few people can have it all (the extra warnings, you know, common sense…), can really only be blamed on ignorance of wealth and status.

Some might argue with me, saying that the rich and powerful knew and know what they are doing. We simply live in a world ruled by sociopaths. The rich wanted exactly all of this to happen so that they could revel in their short-term gains regardless of the future consequences they might or might not endure.

Only… it doesn’t make sense to me. Because the future matters to these people, albeit in a very limited way. (Only the bits and pieces of that future that they think might affect them.) But even Trump loves his children (in a rather grotesque way, perhaps, but still…). In any case, the rich are always people with all the concerns of people. Rich people want to have grandchildren; they want to see their own children flourish; they want at least to have an old age that is not plagued by, well, plagues, among other inconveniences. Moreover, the rich want an inheritance. Many of them explicitly state their desire to preserve their name and wealth in perpetuity. Many of them want to live forever (and seem to think it’s possible, because…). To a rational person, this might imply that there must be a future somewhere where it is possible to survive and at least one’s own children will inhabit it. That they don’t make this obvious connection seems to me proof that there is something going on beyond sociopathy.

Living on the edge of this world, like me, I’ve known quite a few rich people…and they’re not sociopaths…they’re just…not that bright…even though they’re also uniformly confident in their own self- saying high level of efficiency and acuity. They cannot claim wisdom or scholarship. In fact, in the age of cowboys, they are more likely to scoff at “book learning,” “college,” and other forms of imparting information that doesn’t come out of their own exceptionally astute brains. But the ones I know – who are a fairly cross-section, I think – are mostly kind and caring people. Generous even. They are neither sociopaths nor destructive. They are not cruel by design. They often desire to do good in the world and believe they are doing it. But they’re so blinded by their own self-esteem – I have to be smart; I have all this money! – they do not see the real effects of their actions. Not the costs of their wealth on others. Not the logical results for the future. Not even the truth about how they acquired their wealth to begin with (which is usually much less of a story of rugged individualism than they seem to understand). And no investigation will convince them otherwise. They live in an opaque bubble that does not admit any opinion or evidence that might conflict with their own desires. They are like infants, unable to understand any needs other than their own. (If I want to, that must be fine, because look how wonderful I am to be so rich…)

Now I’m quite sure that this blind ignorance is at least unconsciously created by the desire not to see what they don’t see. want to have. Because, of course, they don’t want to see. Not the damage they cause by being them and not the reasonable steps that could be taken to ameliorate that damage, which will result in less wealth and power – for them and for everyone else. They may be nice people, but above all they are rich people. Their identity and self-esteem are tied to their wealth and status. They define themselves according to their current levels of influence and material possessions. So they don’t want this society and their position in it to change. (Well, who would?) Because even an idiot can see that every change that needs to happen is detrimental to him.

So that they don’t see, but mostly I think they just can not see. They are largely unable to understand the problems we face, the role they play in causing them, and the logical steps that could be taken to mitigate the damage. All of these things are outside their understanding of themselves and this world. (Therefore, we have “solutions” which are exactly the kinds of things that caused the problems.) When I tell these people about the various crises, nothing I say sinks in. It’s as if we were speaking different languages ​​or having two completely different conversations. It’s truly a Twilight Zone experience. For a long time I thought the problem was me or that they were laughing at me. But over the years I’ve come to see that it’s more that they just don’t understand what I’m saying because I’m saying things that don’t align with their understanding of reality.

It’s common sense, I guess, but it’s still hard to see. The blind ignorance of the leaders of society is not something we like to acknowledge. Yet he reigns over everything, over every conversation we have. Because those of us who would see the change in the world are mostly trying to persuade those people who have power and wealth to be that change, and those people probably won’t and won’t be able to. This shift is against their interests, but it’s also completely alien to them, completely at odds with who they are and what they know about life – and they’re not open-minded and creative enough to jump into it. ‘unknown. They haven’t had to so far; they have no experience with such jumps. Their wealth protected them from the need to be creative. They do not have this inventive necessity in their life. They lived contentedly, and therefore they also lived largely in ignorance.

I don’t think we have a crisis of creativity or a lack of imagination. I think we’re chasing the imaginations of the wrong people. Those without wealth or prestige create new ways of being wonderfully imaginative. In fact, those who are outside this system, the poor, have always made life with few means but with a simply stunning inventiveness. However, being outside the system, they are not seen by this system. Instead, our culture’s focus is on those with the most to lose. In the hope that they will invent the path to this loss!

When I say get away from this system, that’s what I mean. We have to stop looking for new ideas inside this system. We need to stop trying to fix this mess from the mess itself. We need to look away from money and status and look instead at those who are already living a small life. Those who have the wealth now, those who are the leaders now, they are the ones who orchestrated this whole mess. They are happy there. And they don’t see that the rest of us aren’t. So we need to stop wasting our time trying to open their eyes, trying to persuade them to take action, trying to make a change in them that they don’t even understand. We need to let go of all this mess and turn instead to those who have always lived ecologically and equitably, those who have not benefited from this culture, those who are largely invisible within this culture.

I’m fairly certain that when we look away in support from the power and wealth this system generates, that power and wealth will evaporate. Because power and wealth are deals we make, after all. They are not real things with fixed physical definitions. So when we stop agreeing, they will melt. But power and wealth cannot be relied upon to undo. Powerful and wealthy people are simply not smart enough to make these changes.

Luckily, there are plenty of smart people doing what needs to be done. We just need to watch them.


©Elisabeth Anker 2022

Teaser photo by Rasa Kasparaviciene on Unsplash

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Eritrea: Clean and green environment – an impetus for development https://biofera.org/eritrea-clean-and-green-environment-an-impetus-for-development/ Mon, 06 Jun 2022 13:01:58 +0000 https://biofera.org/eritrea-clean-and-green-environment-an-impetus-for-development/

Eritrea is a signatory to various conventions related to the environment. In 1996, it acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which provides general obligations for Member States. As a signatory to the Convention, which entered into force in 1993, it issued the appropriate legal and institutional adjustments to enable it to implement and enforce the provisions of the convention. The publication of multiple proclamations aimed at the rehabilitation and protection of the environment demonstrates the government’s commitment.

Recognizing the importance of having a guiding policy on biodiversity, the government designed the first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) in 2000. The NBSAP sets out the overall policy position for restoring, conserving and managing biodiversity. biodiversity of Eritrea. Two years later, Legal Notice No. 63/2002 on “Regulations Prohibiting the Production, Import, Sale or Distribution of Thin Plastic Bags in Eritrea” was issued to prohibit the production, import , the sale or distribution of high or low density plastic bags. -produced in polyethylene with a density not exceeding 2 mm in thickness. In order to protect the environment from the adverse effects of harmful chemicals, the government issued Legal Notice No. 11/2006 on “Regulations issued to determine the import, handling, use, storage and elimination of pesticides”. This proclamation identified and listed the pesticides that could be imported into Eritrea.

Manage water resources in a balanced and sustainable way and guarantee the participation of the population in safeguarding the good use of water resources. Legal Notice 162/2010 on the “Eritrean Water Proclamation” was issued in 2010. The objective of the proclamation is to ensure that the country’s water resources (both surface and groundwater) are used wisely. sustainable manner and for the best social and economic benefit of the Eritrean people. Conserving and protecting water resources from pollution is essential for overall development and people’s transformation.

Another regulation worth mentioning is the Environmental Management Regulation NO.127/2017. Article 11 of this legal notice is devoted to the disposal and management of waste. The article states that “Each urban and rural administrative authority shall establish effective waste management systems and safe landfills in their locality.” Regarding the management of hazardous waste, section 14 of the proclamation lists and classifies hazardous waste.

The Eritrean Framework Proclamation on the Protection, Management and Rehabilitation of the Environment No. 179/2017 is another legal notice issued with the aim of establishing the basis of the laws on the management and protection of the environment and to provide the institutions and legal instruments necessary for their implementation and application. It also aims to advance an environmental policy framework compatible with sustainable development. These proclamations are intended to protect biotic factors such as humans, plants, animals and microbes as well as abiotic factors such as air, water and soil. To reverse the harmful environmental issues, various measures such as soil and water conservation, area closures, reforestation and rehabilitation of degraded areas have been taken by the government in collaboration with local communities.

In the past, the thirty-year armed struggle as well as the persistent drought had a negative impact on the natural environment of Eritrea. The country’s rich biological diversity has been denuded for decades. This deterioration of the natural environment complicates the fight against poverty.

National development depends on the use of natural resources. During the colonial era, Eritrea’s natural resources were exploited without concern for conservation and sustainability. This awareness of past affliction prompted the newly independent country, Eritrea, to adopt the National Code of Conduct on the Environment in 1995 to demonstrate “unwavering dedication to maintaining the national lithosphere (land), l hydrosphere (water) and atmosphere (air) at levels of purity conducive to a healthy environment.”

Eritreans have a deep sense of public participation. Community engagement has always been an indispensable element in winning any national action. This national character must be channeled towards the preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity for present and future generations. Environmental protection should be part of our national security policy. Defending our resources is just as important as defending our territorial integrity. As the survival of fish depends solely on water, the survival of human beings entirely depends on a clean and green environment. A healthy environment has a bio-magnetic force that attracts all that is necessary for life. Among other things, trees attract and support life. Planting trees is like planting hope for the future. Planting is the best option to have a green environment and the best option against pollution.