Hydrosphere – Biofera http://biofera.org/ Tue, 04 Jan 2022 16:04:52 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://biofera.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/biofera-icon-150x150.png Hydrosphere – Biofera http://biofera.org/ 32 32 Approach to gain ground by the players -TAPROGGE (Germany), – Industrial IT https://biofera.org/approach-to-gain-ground-by-the-players-taprogge-germany-industrial-it/ Mon, 03 Jan 2022 10:57:47 +0000 https://biofera.org/approach-to-gain-ground-by-the-players-taprogge-germany-industrial-it/

The research report on Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems (Atcs) Market which is carefully crafted by our experts at Decisive Markets Insights provides a variety of relevant market information over the projected period of 2020-2027. Our report summarizes some of the most valuable insights and analyzes different marketing angles as well as deciphers some of the most valuable insights into market growth. 360 degree insight has been covered regarding the core aspects of the market growth. These are point-to-point analyzes, gross margins, vendor landscapes, graphical demos, TCCA analyzes, and more. This report also instills in the entire market a detailed study about the profitability and revenue growth. In addition, the geographic areas that are expected to produce the greatest share of the profits and that need to be focused on in depth are well explained. The toughest models on the market are demonstrated in detail using appropriate graphic and illustrative representations such as boxes, bars, charts and graphs.

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The Automatic Tube Cleaning System (ATCS) market report is segmented into following categories;
By type:
Automatic ball tube cleaning system Automatic brush tube cleaning system
By application:
Power generation Oil and gas Commercial space Hotel industry Others (chemicals, pharmaceuticals, desalination plants, pulp and paper, cement, textiles and food and beverages)
By the key players:
TAPROGGE (Germany), Hydroball (Singapore), Ovivo (United States), WesTech (United States), BEAUDREY (France), Ball Tech (Israel), Nijhuis (Netherlands), WSA Engineered Systems (United States) and Watco (Singapore).

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Interesting Funding Alert – Blockchain startup Multichain, formerly known as AnySwap, has announced funding of $ 60 million. https://biofera.org/interesting-funding-alert-blockchain-startup-multichain-formerly-known-as-anyswap-has-announced-funding-of-60-million/ Tue, 28 Dec 2021 06:41:34 +0000 https://biofera.org/interesting-funding-alert-blockchain-startup-multichain-formerly-known-as-anyswap-has-announced-funding-of-60-million/

Interesting Funding Alert – A blockchain startup, Multichain, formerly known as AnySwap, has announced funding of $ 60 million.

The blockchain industry is doing very well and growing in popularity.

Let’s talk about blockchain and the startups that work on it. Speaking of blockchain, it is a distributed database that is shared among the nodes of the computer network. The blockchain stores information electronically in digital format. Blockchain is famous for the important role it plays in cryptocurrency, like bitcoin. It helps ensure a secure and decentralized form of transaction.

The fundamental difference between a blockchain and a typical database is in the way the data structuring is done. A blockchain groups information into groups called blocks. The traditional database, on the other hand, consists of tables containing information. An interesting feature of blockchain is that data and information cannot be changed in blocks. It can simply be registered and distributed.

Nowadays, we see that there are a lot of startups that are working in the blockchain field. These startups provide assistance in blockchain development solutions and services such as private blockchain, application development services, integrating IoT into blockchain projects, and harnessing the power of AI. to access quality data for blockchain-based applications.

Now let’s talk about the funding of a cross-chain blockchain protocol provider that took place recently.

Funding announcement for a blockchain startup

The startup, Multichain, raised $ 60 million in funding, as announced on December 21, 2021. This funding round was the funding round and was led by Binance Labs. The other participants in this round of funding were Sequoia China, IDG Capital, Three Arrows Capital, DeFiance Capital, Circle Ventures, Tron Foundation, Hydrosphere Ventures, Primitive Ventures, Magic Ventures and HashKey.

The startup plans to use the funds raised to expand and develop its research and development team that focuses on crypto algorithms. It also wants to expand its audit team which is aligned with the security and service team to support more users and more blockchain ecosystems. He also wants to invest some of the funds to move forward in his mission to build decentralized networks “the ultimate router for Web 3.0”.

multichain: a creation of your own blockchain service for banks

About the blockchain startup that received funding

The startup, Multichain, was founded in 2020 under the name AnySwap. It was initially engaged in providing a decentralized cross-chain exchange service for blockchain assets. The team then turned this groundwork into an interconnect protocol for multiple blockchain networks that enable the exchange of data, value, and control between them. It now has a robust, fast and secure protocol for these networks to operate universally.

multi-channel |  chain

Why the startup, Multichain?

The Multichain startup lists some features it provides in order to attract more users. The characteristics are as follows-
Non-guardian + MPC– MPC, the powerful symbol of decentralization, deals with the methods of multi-chain cross-chain bridging and smart contracts on other chains.
Slip-free exchange– Multichain’s 1: 1 swap allows users to perform 0 slip transfers and eliminate the hidden cost associated with AMM.
Multi-chain router– The multi-chain router allows users to exchange freely between two chains. It reduces costs and makes it easier to move between chains.

Currently, the startup has 25 mainstream public blockchains, including Ethereum, Fantom, Harmony and many more. The number of users on these channels is over 300,000 and the total value of assets blocked within the network exceeds $ 5 billion and has over 1,000 crypto assets flowing between the various major networks.

About Binance Labs

Binance Labs identifies, invests, and empowers entrepreneurs, startups, and viable blockchain communities, providing funding for industrial projects that help grow the broader blockchain ecosystem. Binance Labs is committed to supporting fast-executing technical teams that positively impact the crypto space and build the decentralized web. He strengthens the Decentralized Web, where he focuses on investing in technical teams that build and support the Decentralized Web. Binance Labs is on a mission to be the infrastructure service provider for the blockchain ecosystem. He has the vision to increase the freedom of money in the world. He believes that spreading this freedom can dramatically improve life around the world.

binance labs leads $ 5.7 million round to launch fio protocol |  binance blog

She has been working for more than 3 years, on more than 5 continents, in more than 25 countries, and in more than 100 projects. He honors his staff for success because he says he has one of the most talented, hardworking and passionate teams the world has to offer.

What was said about the deal?

The startup’s co-founder and CEO, Multichain, made a statement saying the startup is now a cross-chain infrastructure that is committed to connecting more blockchains and public crypto assets than anyone else. He added that he does all of this with very low transaction fees, shorter transition time, and high levels of security.

He then said that keeping in mind the startup’s plans to improve Web3, the startup will integrate the NFT Cross-chain bridge and the new anyCall solution, thus supporting innovative NFT and DeFi dapps in cross-chain ecosystems. .

The startup is working on something that has become a trend in the world today. We wish the startup the best of luck and a bright and successful future to come.

Edited and proofread by Ashlyn Joy

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Carbon capture can be part of the climate solution https://biofera.org/carbon-capture-can-be-part-of-the-climate-solution/ Wed, 22 Dec 2021 16:54:59 +0000 https://biofera.org/carbon-capture-can-be-part-of-the-climate-solution/

Imagine a group of campers carelessly polluting the forest, leaving beer cans, plastic wrap, and propane tanks strewn about the understory. An ecologist arrives at their campsite and explains how they are harming the forest ecosystem. Campers decide to stop polluting, but never clean up the mess. This is analogous to a climate strategy without removing carbon.

At its root, the climate crisis is a chemical imbalance. Global warming is just one of its side effects. To restore the ecological conditions in which we have evolved, we must restore the balance of carbon fluxes between our atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere. This not only means stopping carbon emissions, but also sending the carbon back to where it came from.

Since 1750, an estimated 26 to 46 percent of cumulative historical emissions have been released from the biosphere through deforestation and other forms of habitat destruction. Fortunately, ecosystems have a myriad of ways to reverse this process. Even at the mouth of a chimney, the most advanced technology for cleaning up the densest plume of coal pales in comparison to a tropical forest, itself pale in comparison to a mangrove. It is true that nothing sequesters carbon faster than nature.

But the world’s ecosystems have a carbon cap, or carrying capacity. Even if we somehow returned all converted land to its pre-industrial state, models estimate that we could only sequester about 41% of cumulative historical emissions – in other words, about as much. of carbon that the biosphere originally contained.

In fact, at least half of the carbon we release into the atmosphere comes from the lithosphere, burning fossil fuels in the earth’s crust. There is no natural process to reverse this on the scale and speed needed.

Despite this reality, many major climate advocates argue that carbon capture is not necessary. They point out – and rightly so – that if we decarbonize quickly, the planet could return to halfway to pre-industrial carbon dioxide levels by the turn of the century.

But again, climate change is just a consequence of the global chemistry experiment we’re conducting. If we leave all that carbon in the atmosphere, the levels will be possibly decrease once we stop broadcasting. This is because most of it will dissolve in the ocean, setting off a chain reaction with carbon compounds that acidify the seawater. Removal of carbon from the atmosphere reverses this process. Even if we were to reach pre-industrial temperatures in the 2100s by reducing emissions alone, we will have done nothing to combat ocean acidification. Is it a victory to reach a planet where there are vast expanses of ocean without oysters to filter water, without corals to house fish, without pteropods to support food webs?

Worse yet, without burying the carbon, the effects of temperature change will be catastrophic both at sea and on land. We will almost certainly cross the two-degree threshold, virtually dooming the corals to extinction, liquidating the Arctic sea ice, sinking hundreds of cities from Bangkok to Miami and killing millions in heat waves. To survive, we need to stabilize our climate – and quickly.

While leading biogeochemists have long advocated carbon capture technology, its most visible proponent is the fossil fuel industry. Its lobbyists use it to sell carbon credits to big polluters and empty promises to world leaders. His interest in technology is not driven by an obligation to humanity or the planet, but rather by a strategy to silence critics and stay in business, whether that means emitting less or more. Today, most of the small amount of carbon captured by industry is not stored, but rather used in enhanced oil recovery to lubricate geological cracks and accelerate carbon extraction. Needless to say, this makes the problem worse.

There are only a few forms of carbon capture technology that produce net negative emissions. First, some catalyze natural processes, such as increased weathering of rocks and iron fertilization of the oceans. However, the sequestration potential of these approaches is generally considered modest – and with a high risk of negative ecological side effects.

Then there is bioenergetic carbon capture and storage, or BECCS. BECCS augments the theoretically neutral process of biofuel growth and combustion by capturing carbon in the stack, storing it underground to push emissions into the red. This method could potentially sequester a lot of carbon, but at a high cost in soil. While we would not have to expand cropland if we drastically reduced agricultural land use by raising fewer animals, using the land to grow biofuels would sacrifice its higher potential for carbon sequestration through rewilding. .

This leaves Direct Air Capture (DAC) perhaps the most technologically difficult of all. DAC typically involves a system of huge fans sucking air through a chemical sponge that filters about a thousand molecules of air for every four of carbon dioxide. These are then liquefied in solvents and pumped underground.

The drawbacks associated with direct air capture are small compared to other forms of geoengineering and related to the risks we already take when mining fossil fuels, including seismic destabilization and leaking wells. ‘injection. However, DAC consumes a lot of water, and although we can develop passive systems using wind, absorbent solvents, or electrodialysis, current direct air capture technology requires large amounts of energy and n is negative in emissions only if it is powered by renewable energies.

Herein lies the most important caveat: carbon capture is not an excuse to aggressively reduce emissions. This will only help if we also quickly eliminate the fossil fuel industry.

Unfortunately, he is the one who gets all the funding. Fossil fuel companies are raking in public investments and tax breaks to research and develop carbon capture, while showing dismal results. Despite decades of R&D, billions in carbon capture subsidies and proposals for an additional $ 100 billion, ExxonMobil said it captured less than 1% of its emissions in 2019.

The charitable interpretation is that the engineering of carbon capture is a unique challenge. A less gullible explanation is that fossil fuel companies simply have no incentive to develop carbon capture technology. Funding does not depend on progress, and scaling is not worth the capital of thousands of engineers and millions of construction workers. Either way, research and development of carbon capture technology can only be successful if we decouple it from the fossil fuel industry and build it within the public sector, away from the tyranny of the fringes. beneficiary.

Despite such a poor investment, the net carbon capture technology does exist. In August 2021, a prototype called Orca went online, making it the largest direct air capture facility in the world. While its developer, Climeworks, is a net neutral company at best – it sells carbon offsets to make a profit – Orca is net-negative, running on geothermal power and pulling a relatively impressive four thousand tons of CO2 per year. At this rate, we would need more than eight million of them operating for fifty years to capture all the fossil carbon we have burned (and it would take longer for the atmosphere to stabilize).

The good news is that the facilities aren’t that big – the size of a sea container, of which we have around 43 million – and like solar and wind power, we can expect this technology to become more efficient. over time. Plus, if you are considering where to install them, we already have millions of complete drilling rigs with tubing connected to oil fields or porous shale strata. Finally, it’s not all or nothing. Every atom counts.

Carbon capture is not the easy road to net zero that oil lobbyists want to sell us. True net zero is around 280 ppm CO2. We should think of carbon capture more like putting imperceptibly diffused toothpaste back into countless millions of leaking tubes – essentially reverse-engineered fossil fuel, our most disastrous geoengineering experiment ever. It’s a moon stroke, but it’s not rocket science. And while there is a complex engineering case for carbon capture, the ecological case is simple: we need to re-bury the carbon to reverse ocean acidification.

Carbon capture is a challenge that we cannot afford to shy away from, regardless of the market purposes for which the technology has been developed so far. Today, it serves as a justification for prolonging our dependence on fossil fuels and enriching those who have benefited from its extraction. Tomorrow, this may be the only way to address the crime against nature that precedes and precipitates climate change – the distortion of planetary chemistry.

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Norwegian researchers build a floating “ocean laboratory” https://biofera.org/norwegian-researchers-build-a-floating-ocean-laboratory/ Sun, 19 Dec 2021 19:50:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/norwegian-researchers-build-a-floating-ocean-laboratory/

Posted on December 19, 2021 at 2:50 PM by

Gemini News

Right next to the small island of Munkholmen, outside the city of Trondheim, the first of two observation buoys is now installed to collect data from the fjord. With a diameter of five meters and yellow in color, the buoy is easily spotted from land. The buoys will be powered primarily by wind and solar energy and do not need to be permanently manned.

“It’s probably an understatement to call it a buoy. A floating laboratory would probably be a better description,” says Emlyn Davies, researcher at SINTEF.

He is a marine scientist and has helped develop some of the equipment that will undertake continuous measurements of marine environmental data. The research buoy will be important for testing ocean sensor technology, training future marine scientists and establishing long-term data on the state of the environment in the fjord.

Information from the buoys will be used to improve understanding of the environment and to develop and update models. Ocean models can predict things like current conditions and algal blooms, but more knowledge is needed to develop them further.

The floating laboratory will also help to make local environmental policy more knowledge-based.

Important part of “OceanLab”

The second buoy, with a diameter of about two meters, will be located outside Ingdalen in the municipality of Orkland. Both buoys are part of OceanLab, which will host one of the world’s most advanced data collection platforms for marine research.

According to Davies, OceanLab is a new state-of-the-art national research infrastructure being established in Trondheim. This is a collaboration between SINTEF and NTNU, funded by the Research Council of Norway. OceanLab will contribute to research on underwater robotics, aquaculture, autonomous navigation and environmental research. Observation buoys are particularly important to better understand the environment of the fjord.

The data collected will be made available in real time on a digital platform for anyone interested.

“As we gradually develop new ways of using the ocean’s resources, we also have a growing need to collect data. This is important in order to develop good ocean models capable of predicting the impact of developments – which is also one of the goals of the United Nations Ocean Decade. This will give us more knowledge about the consequences of what we do. An example of this is the growing interest in harvesting the smaller organisms found in the sea, such as Calanus finmarchius and krill. The data we collect will provide a better understanding of how it affects the environment, ”says Davies.

Collect large amounts of marine research data

The buoy off Munkholmen will collect data on everything happening nearby, such as weather, waves, current and temperature, and it is specially equipped to monitor underwater life.

It will have a range of features including particle imaging, acoustic communication and a plug-and-play interface for custom sensors. In practice, this means that researchers can add and remove sensors as needed. The floating laboratory will also have equipment capable of taking pictures of organisms invisible to the human eye, such as phytoplankton.

“By looking at the type of plankton here, what it looks like and how it changes over the course of the season, we will be able to see, for example, how the River Nid affects the ecosystem of the fjord. With climate change, we are seeing more extreme weather conditions with heavy rains that carry water from the land to the ocean. When the sediments enter the fjord, they block the light. One of the effects is that it prevents the growth of algae, which in turn leads to a reduction in the food available to organisms and decreases the production of oxygen. To understand these types of changes and their consequences, we need to collect long-term environmental data, ”says Davies.

One of the most advanced instruments in the buoy is called CytoSub. This equipment creates images in place by lowering an instrument called a flow cytometer, which produces microscope images and fluorescence signatures of particles and plankton down to the nanoscale level.

The reason is that phytoplankton is an essential organism for ocean ecosystems. Phytoplankton produce about 50% of the world’s oxygen. They also harness energy from sunlight that scientists can measure using light sensors. Plankton is also a primary source of food which in turn is eaten by larger organisms.

No random placement

The position of the buoy at Munkholmen was calculated using a 3D model developed by SINTEF called SINMOD. This model system connects and simulates physical and biological processes in the ocean. According to SINMOD, the selected point is representative of a large part of the fjord.

“Even though the data is only collected from one location, what is happening in the Trondheim Fjord may be representative of ocean conditions elsewhere in the world. For example, if the sediments blacken the water and impact nature, then this knowledge is transferable to other coastal areas, ”says Davies. “They will serve as a platform that can support faster technology development and prototyping of new sensors, as well as comparisons of different sensors that measure the same thing in different ways. Here we can test new technology while it’s in development. “

Testing this kind of technology is often both expensive and time consuming, but here researchers and tech companies will be only a few hundred yards away.

“We can get here in a few minutes, plug in whatever we want to test and get the data really fast,” says Davies.

Create electricity for own consumption

SINTEF Ocean acquired the buoy from the British company Hydrosphere, which supplied the buoy according to a design developed by Mobilis in France. They developed the buoy specifically for OceanLab.

“It is the biggest buoy we have developed so far. It has four chambers for sensors and measuring equipment and it has also been adapted for power generation using spare solar cells, wind turbines and fuel cells so that it is self-sufficient in electricity, even in winter, says John Caskey of Hydrosphere.

This article is courtesy of Gemini News and can be found in its original form here.

The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Maritime Executive.

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]]> End of the world: MIT scientist says we are on the verge of mass extinction | Sciences | New https://biofera.org/end-of-the-world-mit-scientist-says-we-are-on-the-verge-of-mass-extinction-sciences-new/ Thu, 09 Dec 2021 18:53:12 +0000 https://biofera.org/end-of-the-world-mit-scientist-says-we-are-on-the-verge-of-mass-extinction-sciences-new/

At least five mass extinctions have occurred in the past, caused by cosmic and natural phenomena. Scientists estimate that up to 99.9% of all life, plant and animal, has been wiped out. The most recent extinction, the so-called Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction, occurred around 66 million years ago when a killer asteroid struck the planet just off the coast of today’s Mexico. hui.

Not only did the Cretaceous extinction abruptly end the reign of the dinosaurs, it wiped out up to 75% of all life on Earth at this point.

Many scientists fear that a similar fate awaits us in the future and, more worryingly, humans could have a part in the disappearance of the planet.

According to MIT geophysicist Daniel Rothman, human activity has the potential to disrupt the global carbon cycle and trigger a 10,000-year ecological catastrophe.

The scientist has already spoken of his dire predictions, which he says could come true by the end of the century.

In a study published in the journal Science Advances, he analyzed changes in the carbon cycle over the past 540 million years, including the last five mass extinctions.

READ MORE: Russia increases gas to EU after Biden intervention

He used it to determine a “capacity threshold” in the carbon cycle, beyond which he believes conditions on Earth become too unstable to sustain life.

Based on his research, Professor Rothman claimed that Earth could enter “unknown territory” by 2100, leading to a planetary catastrophe that could last for up to 10,000 years.

He reiterated his concerns in a new interview with The Times of Israel.

He said: “Whenever there has been a major event in the history of life, there has also been a major disturbance of the environment.

“These things tend to come together.”

And he believes humans are pumping too much carbon into the atmosphere, faster than in past geological events and on much shorter time scales.

Professor Rothman estimates that the carbon threshold in the ocean is around 300 gigatons per century.

Unfortunately, some estimates suggest that Earth is on track to add up to 500 gigatons by 2100.

The scientist said: “Mass extinctions represent a kind of cascade of positive feedbacks which causes an overall crash of the ecosystem.

“What we are seeing today is very serious; however, I don’t know how much it takes to move us towards the tipping point that would create a global catastrophe for the global ecosystem.

“I can’t say no, I don’t know how to say when we would.”

The key issue right now, according to the expert, is to limit the ways in which we pollute the environment and to find ways to reduce the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

He added: “Of course we already knew that, but that provides another kind of reason to do it.

“There are things that could happen that are essentially beyond our ability to understand them.”

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My turn: the Earth is alive https://biofera.org/my-turn-the-earth-is-alive/ Wed, 08 Dec 2021 11:03:18 +0000 https://biofera.org/my-turn-the-earth-is-alive/

Posted: 12/8/2021 6:00:44 AM

Modified: 08/12/2021 06h00: 16 AM

As I drove north to Hanover the morning before Thanksgiving, I saw the moon set over a brilliant, crystal-clear blue sky. The view was so beautiful and unexpected. It filled me with gratitude for the gifts the natural world gives us for the simple fact of being alive.

The experience reminded me that everything inhabiting Earth – on it, above, within – is alive, or once was. How strange is it, then, that although we consider different parts of the Earth to be alive, we still consider the Earth itself to be a dead rock? How else could we treat him with such contempt?

Scientists recently discovered that lobsters and octopus have feelings. Uh! If they had watched the wonderful documentary My Octopus Teacher, the intelligence of these creatures would never have been questioned.

When I was young, I went fishing for the first and last time. I hesitated to put a worm on the hook. I was told that worms have no feelings. I was told the same thing about the fish, that they don’t feel pain because of the hook. I knew these were lies, just as science has now proven that plants and trees have their own intelligence.

Scientists have shown that everything has its own vibrational life force, including rocks and minerals. Each part of the living world has its own role to play in the balance of the whole. Like our own bodies, the complex conception of Earth is magical in its diversity, complexity and beauty.

Those who plunder the Earth for short-term profit want us to believe that with the exception of humans and our pets, other life forms are disposable and are here for our use, even to the point of extinction. . They want us to believe that everything is fine, because these life forms have no intelligence or feelings. This is another of the big lies and an underlying cause of global warming.

When we collectively understand that all things have a life force and a role to play in our world, our focus will shift from rampant consumption and destruction to balance and sustainability. We will assume our primary role as stewards of each other and the amazing planet we are fortunate to occupy.

We would stop poisoning the place where we live, clear cutting, surface mining and hydraulic fracturing. When we understand that all parts of the Earth are alive, we will stop removing its minerals for no reason. They’re in the ground for a reason and could be an integral part of the proper functioning of the larger ecosystem, just as rainforests are not just trees, but the lungs of the Earth.

In 1972, chemist James Lovelock’s Gaia Hypothesis proposed that “all organisms and their inorganic environment on Earth are tightly integrated to form a single, complex, self-regulating system, maintaining the conditions for life on the planet. Gaia’s theory postulates that the Earth is a complex system involving the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and pedosphere, tightly coupled as an evolutionary system.

If all life forms play a cooperative role on the web, is it unrealistic to believe that the Earth itself is alive and intelligent? Is it reasonable to think otherwise?

Indigenous peoples understand their connection to the natural world and live in harmony with it. We have a lot to learn from them. Instead, we label them as “primitive” to justify the destruction of their way of life. We separate them on reserves because their beliefs threaten the consumerist and industrial paradigm.

For me, it is no exaggeration to believe that the Earth is intelligent. I find it hard to understand why so many people think otherwise. From this perspective, it’s no surprise that Earth is adjusting to what it sees as a full-fledged attack on a diseased organism – mankind. The evolving COVID pandemic, raging forest fires, droughts, sea level rise, more hurricanes and tornadoes are ways Earth is defending itself, attempting to restore l balance of its systems.

It is shameful that we are in this position. Our behavior got us to this point. The way out of our dilemma is to honor the Earth and all the life forms it supports. Otherwise, we might end up living on a dead rock after all.

(Sol Solomon lives in Sutton.)

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How LUCA, the first living being on Earth, appeared out of nowhere https://biofera.org/how-luca-the-first-living-being-on-earth-appeared-out-of-nowhere/ Sat, 04 Dec 2021 01:30:05 +0000 https://biofera.org/how-luca-the-first-living-being-on-earth-appeared-out-of-nowhere/

December 4, 2021

Pedro necklace

Update: 12/04/2021 01:25 a.m.

Keep

The study of the origin of life is a fascinating and complex field and has disturbed scientists not only out of intellectual curiosity, but also as a way forward to understand our own origins.

One of the first to address this question was the philosopher Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) and solved it with his theory of spontaneous generation, according to which life is generated from inert matter. This theory was not refuted until the 19th century by the French scientist Louis Pasteur.

Prebiotic chemistry

It is believed that the Earth formed exactly at the same time as the solar system, about 4.5 billion years ago now, and that for a long time there has been a continuous bombardment of meteorites, which together with the high geological activity, caused pressures generated. and temperatures so high that life was absolutely impossible.

The scenario began to change about 3.9 billion years ago when a stable hydrosphere appeared on our planet. In this liquid mass, dissolved molecules, mineral fragments and rocks appeared, as well as bubbles generated by gases expelled from underwater volcanoes.

Some four million years later, there were already different species of cells that began to “relate” to each other in a very archaic way. What made him go from an inhospitable, lifeless planet to the appearance of perfectly established living beings?

In an attempt to answer this question, in the middle of the last century, the American scientist Stanley l miller (1930-2007) carried out an experiment from which the components of the original Earth’s atmosphere (ammonia, hydrogen, methane and water vapor), with the participation of electric discharges that in some way simulated the energy contribution that existed before the appearance of life, they were able to react and produce organic compounds.

In other words, Stanley L Miller has shown that it is possible to generate basic biological molecules from simple chemical compounds.

The world of RNA

In the 1980s, it was shown and accepted that all living things originated from a single common ancestor who was baptized as LUCA – an acronym in English for “the only common universal ancestor” – and who lived about 3,500 million years ago, who carried out all the basic mechanisms of a living being.

LUCA was a nucleusless, single-celled living being with a lipid plasma membrane and a DNA genome. It is estimated that it could have around 600 genes and that bacteria, archaea and equariots have formed from it.

This is when a new question arises: what was the intermediate act between prebiotic chemistry and LUCA?

We know that proteins are encoded in DNA and that DNA replication cannot occur without the participation of active proteins.DNA polymerase‘. In a way, this pairing represents the chicken and egg paradox at the molecular level, being impossible to know if the first thing to appear in the theater of life was DNA or proteins.

Most likely it was neither, the first actor to appear on the stage had to be RNA. The explanation must be sought in that it is the only macromolecule sufficiently versatile to function as a genotype and phenotype. RNA is much more than an intermediary molecule in the flow of genetic information as has been believed for some time, since it is able to perform the functions of DNA and proteins.

Most likely, between prebiotic chemistry and LUCA there was what is now called the “RNA world”, that is, protocells with ribozymes, fatty acids in their membranes and a RNA genome.

Despite all that has been put forward in the knowledge of the origin of life, there are still many questions to be answered. For example, if RNA is a very sensitive molecule to hydrolysis, how is it possible that it was formed on a planet “overflowing” with water?

Mr. Jara

Pedro Gargantilla is an internist at the Hospital de El Escorial (Madrid) and author of several popular books.

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10 mighty Marvel heroes who were weak https://biofera.org/10-mighty-marvel-heroes-who-were-weak/ Mon, 29 Nov 2021 01:00:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/10-mighty-marvel-heroes-who-were-weak/

Marvel’s heroes have changed a lot over the years, and much of the reason is due to the changes the comics themselves have gone through. To deal with the biggest threats they face, the heroes also had to gain power. And while some heroes have gone through relatively few power changes, some have grown tremendously from weak to strong over the years.

RELATED: Marvel: 10 Characters Who Become Captain Universe

This rise in power has made them more entertaining in many ways, but it doesn’t always work exactly as expected. Some characters have become ridiculously overpowered, able to do things that would have been impossible for them before.


ten Daredevil was once an aspiring Spider-Man and now he can beat Spider-Man

Daredevil is one of Marvel’s toughest vigilantes these days, but he hasn’t always been that way. Before he became an unstoppable ninja warrior who defeated everyone regardless of his power level, he was basically a blind Spider-Man with no super strength. He rocked through town, made jokes, and was almost a stereotype in many ways.

Frank Miller changed everything. After his run, Daredevil began racking up victories against people like Spider-Man, Cap, Wolverine, Beast, Hercules, and, more surprisingly, Ultron. His powers haven’t really increased, but his skills are much greater, which has made a huge difference.

9 Wolverine’s healing factor has reached incredible levels

Wolverine riddled with bullets

There was a time when Wolverine’s healing factor was good, but it was nowhere near the level it is now. Even superficial wounds took a while to heal, and the worst wounds required him to rest for long periods of time until they healed. Over the years that changed, as injuries that would have killed Wolverine in the past became easy for him to survive.

Wolverine has always been a tank, but now it’s a little silly. He can regenerate even though he’s a skeleton, and almost any wounds he’s suffered heal quickly. This made him more useful in many ways, but it also took the danger out of his stories.

8 Archangel ceased to be useless

Angel was an unnecessary member of the X-Men. He had wings and hollow bones, and that was it. He wasn’t much help in a fight, and his wings were huge targets. Finally, he lost them. However, he was saved by Apocalypse after attempting to kill himself, which turned him into an Archangel, Death Rider, and eventually began to be useful in a fight.

RELATED: 10 Marvel Characters Clearly Inspired By Batman

With powerful metal wings, Angel was faster and able to fire poison-coated bladed darts. It made him much better in a fight and also gave him an interesting story after years of being in the background.

7 Deadpool never used to win fights

Deadpool Black White Blood Allred

Deadpool is known to be funny and ultra-violent, but there was a time when he was best known for his lost fights. At first, Deadpool was a villain, which meant he lost all of his fights, and his healing factor – now known as one of Marvel’s best – wasn’t as powerful as he is now.

Deadpool became more than cannon fodder after his first solo book in the mid-90s. Until then, he had a villain’s winning-and-losing record. He was a cool visual and kind of a credits one to begin with, but he would improve tremendously over the years.

6 Captain Marvel has gone from being a glorified sidekick to one of Marvel’s most powerful heroes

Carol Danvers as Captain Marvel

Carol Danvers is known as one of the most powerful Captain Marvels, but it took her a while to get there. After gaining her powers, she became Ms. Marvel, and while she was certainly no slouch, she was far from what she had become. In fact, his powers have gone through periods of massive boom and bust throughout his career.

First, she lost her powers to Snape, then gained greater energy while manipulating powers as a binary before losing them and reverting to her elders. From there, her powers began to increase until she reached her current level.

5 Hulk is much stronger than he once was

The Hulk Ryan Ottley

One of the hallmarks of the Hulk’s existence is change – his power level being the most important thing that has changed. While the Hulk was never exactly “weak,” there was a time when he wasn’t the strongest being on the planet. Like many newbie heroes in the Silver Age, the Hulk was strong for this period. However, its power grows tremendously over the years.

The Hulk didn’t have the infinite strength potential he has now, and his starting strength level was also much lower. He was certainly strong, but he wasn’t the all-powerful monster that breaks the world, beats the team, and that he is now.

4 Iron Man got better as technology got better

Invincible Iron Man 600 Blanket

Iron Man’s power growth is pretty much a given. His first armor was a primitive costume created with whatever was given to him by the terrorists who captured him (and Tony Stark is nothing but a tinkerer.) Since then he has modified and improved his armor several times over the years, improving it so much as technology has made it one of the powers of the Avengers.

Iron Man has built a multitude of armors over the years, each more powerful than the next. He also built specialized suits – ones he could wear to deal with threats that his normal armor wouldn’t stand a chance against. As technology has improved, Iron Man’s armor has improved as well.

3 Iceman is basically a god now someday

Iceman from X-Men

Iceman had the greatest shine of the original X-Men. He went from a snowman throwing ice balls to one of the most powerful Omega class mutants on the planet. Iceman has gotten to the point where he can instantly freeze everything and create ice drones that he controls from a distance. His powers give him incredible control over the earth’s hydrosphere and he can easily pass through enemies.

RELATED: The 10 Bravest Humans In Marvel Comics, Ranked

Iceman’s powers have grown so much that he’s now unstoppable. Even the most powerful heroes and villains find it difficult to beat him. He’s come a long way from the simple sarcastic snowman of the Silver Age.

2 Invisible woman rose from resident maiden in distress to the most powerful member of the Fantastic Four

Thanks to Stan Lee’s shoddy writings on women, Invisible Woman was once the toughest member of the Fantastic Four. Even the writers who came after Stan maintained his poor characterization, and it wasn’t until Jim Shooter took over as Marvel’s editor that things changed.

that of John Byrne The Fantastic Four run saw Sue gain strength and become the most powerful member of the team. Now it’s weird to think that there was a time when she wasn’t the powerhouse of the team. Her control over invisible energy makes her the most powerful offensive and defensive threat of the Fantastic Four, and few enemies in the party can handle her when she’s angry.

1 Scarlet Witch’s power levels have increased dramatically

Scarlet Witch is known as one of Marvel’s mightiest heroes, but it wasn’t always so. Before it was revealed that her powers allowed her to manipulate reality itself, Scarlet Witch’s power altered base probability. It would manifest “hexagonal spheres” which would disturb the laws of probability in a field located around it.

It was a pretty useful power, but that was just the start. Her power level has been steadily increasing over time – to the extent that she can do just about anything she wants now. She is now an expert witch and able to change the world at will.

NEXT: The 10 Bravest Aliens In Marvel Comics, Ranked

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10 hot topics on ecology for the new generation https://biofera.org/10-hot-topics-on-ecology-for-the-new-generation/ Sat, 27 Nov 2021 18:44:16 +0000 https://biofera.org/10-hot-topics-on-ecology-for-the-new-generation/

In more ways than one, the process of studying ecology began with the birth of the first humans. However, the process of doing so now continues to develop and evolve as we continue to apply technology to the execution of our ideas.

Ecology is a structure that shows the levels of interdependence between organisms and their physical space. But, due to the abundance and volume of life on earth, ecology is classified and studied in different segments. Some of the most studied segments are organisms, biosphere, people, community and ecosystem.

Even most of the new emerging topics also tend to be classified and covered by these major segments of ecology. In this article, we will discuss some areas and topics in ecology that are likely to receive more attention in the future. But because future generations will depend on technology a lot more, we will cover the topic with a focus on the technological aspects.

In no particular order, here are 10 hot topics on ecology for the new generation.

1) The use of bio-batteries

Bio-batteries are devices that use organic compounds and natural substances to provide energy. The principle of these devices is similar to those used by most animals and plants to produce energy. The process involves the use of metabolic reactions to convert energy from organic compounds like glucose.

2) Low-power computers

Low-power computers are computers that consume less electricity and energy than conventional computers. Low consumption products are strategically designed with low consumption circuits and intelligent technological components. These devices can help the planet by consuming fewer resources while maintaining outputs.

Students can use their low-power computers not only to protect the environment, but also to fulfill a variety of other purposes. For example, you can use your low-power computers to access various student services and help your academics.

You just have to find good platforms and take advantage of some of their most popular services, like doing my homework online for me or helping with math homework. But students should always be aware of selecting the right platforms and the right experts before finalizing their services. And yes, it’s true – a good technological machine can certainly help many people to do their jobs better and easier!

3) GPS tracking

The evolution and widespread use of GPS technology has helped make life easier for people around the world. But, as it is, GPS technology can also be used for the good of nature. For example, today scientists can track animals in nature down to a centimeter using GSP technology.

4) Soil conservation

Believe it or not, the present and the future are driving more and more people to conserve and protect soils. This is because soil is not only home to the majority of life on Earth, but is also most affected when damage and neglect increases. Several experts around the world have already started practicing various futuristic conservation methods. Healthier soil helps grow better food, provides cleaner water, purifies the air, and more.

5) Carbon conversation technology

Today, it is a known fact that increasing levels of carbon emissions are harmful to the environment. But the future is not only to reduce daily emissions, but also to reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. There is also increased interest in this area due to the growing number of climate activists like Greta Thunberg. So the carbon conversation is one of the hottest environmental topics today and tomorrow.

6) Water conservation

Water conservation can be defined as the set of activities and processes undertaken to protect the hydrosphere of the planet. This is an area of ​​always important and continuing interest, as clean, fresh water is vital for all life on Earth. The future of water conservation lies in the use of technology to reduce daily and total pollution of the oceans. Most practices will continue to occur in all segments, at the household and industry levels.

7) ICARUS – The use of satellite technology

The International Cooperation for Animal Research Using Space is an initiative to improve the lives of animals. It is used to observe global migratory movements and track various types of animals. Today, ICARUS is one of the most advanced programs that uses satellite technology to help wildlife. And there is a lot of potential to improve the involvement and reach of such programs because of their large-scale benefits.

8) Sensor technology

Sensor technology has found its way into several modern devices that use the technology to power their functions. Sensor technology can be used to track animals, assess their vital health parameters and more. Several mini and micro sensors can also be used to record, measure and analyze various other forms of relevant data. This area will certainly be much more studied and used in order to improve its functions and purposes.

9) 3D printing technology

The technology exists and has helped many people create tools with much greater ease and precision. This technology can be used to create just about anything imaginable. The only requirements are the availability of materials and the know-how of the machine. 3D printing can lighten the burden on the environment while creating various beneficial products.

10) Big Data & Analytics

In today’s digital age of advanced technology and information, data can be found in abundance anytime, anywhere. Most industries use technology to perform their functions easier and more efficiently. However, today’s technology can also learn by studying data and models while being used. This study of the data and their analyzes can then be used to further improve day-to-day and long-term functions and practices.

Here are some more environmentally friendly topics that will most likely be discussed and studied in the future –

  • Thematic Landsat
  • Autonomous vehicles
  • Modern population control measures
  • Light and sonar technology
  • Restoration of coral reefs
  • DNA sequencing and genetic testing
  • Solar energy
  • Bioinformatics

The bottom line

With all of the above discussion and study topics in mind, one can easily quench one’s thirst for interest and research in ecology. But students are also advised to stay tuned for new innovations and inventions in the field. This is because most of the practices today are technology based and will also change as the associated technology evolves. To begin with, one can focus more on nature while tapping into credible resources for knowledge.

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What is geomicrobiology? https://biofera.org/what-is-geomicrobiology/ Tue, 23 Nov 2021 08:00:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/what-is-geomicrobiology/

Geomicrobiology is the study of the role of microbes in the geological and geochemical processes that shaped the earth and continue to function today. Microbes play a vital role in the recycling, generation, sequestration and elimination of a wide variety of substances and chemicals in the environment Going through biogeochemical cycles that cover the atmosphere, hydrosphere and deep lithosphere.

Image Credit: kram-9 / Shutterstock.com

When did geomicrobiology become a field of study?

The term geomicrobiology was coined in the 1950s to describe the study of these processes, although scientists had been studying soil and aquatic microbiology since the 19th century. Christian Ehrenberg identified in 1836 that Gallionella ferruginea has been associated with the presence of iron deposits from peatlands, although at the time he misidentified this bacterium as a protozoan.

Later in 1887 Sergei Winogradsky noted that Beggiatoa bacteria could oxidize hydrogen sulfide gas to solid elemental sulfur, then in 1888 this Leptothrix ochracea bacteria has been implicated in releasing iron carbonate from rock to generate iron oxide.

The role of bacteria in precipitation of calcium and manganese in the oceans, methane formation, weathering of rocks, and the nitrogen cycle became clearer over the following decades, often preceded by the recognition of l metabolic activity of microorganisms in the laboratory and the subsequent realization of the extent that these processes played in the formation of the earth and its ecosystems.

Even in the last 20e century, the discoveries concerning the role of microorganisms in the formation of the earth were recognized. For example, it was long believed that microorganisms would be unable to survive outside a relatively narrow pH and temperature range, but the discovery of extremophilic bacteria that thrive in strongly acidic or alkaline environments around sites of mine drainage as well as identifying those who live around hot thermal vents and in frozen conditions at the poles have changed that view.

Reports that the influence of microbial life extended miles below the earth’s surface and the seabed in the 1990s and 2000s further fueled the realization that many aspects of geology previously considered entirely to be the result of physical and chemical forces were in fact due to the actions of microorganisms over millions of years.

The field of geomicrobiology had historically established that subterranean anaerobic life is organized into zones on a “thermodynamic scale”, where highly energetic iron reducers exclude sulfate reducers, which similarly exclude methane-producing microorganisms. . However, the environmental pH can alter the metabolic pathway which is the most thermodynamically favorable.

For example, under acidic conditions, iron reducers hold an additional energy advantage that is not present under alkaline conditions. In this way, certain types of microorganisms can become dominant in a particular geographic region, although long-term bioreactor experiments reveal that the three types of energy producers work in symbiosis to balance the availability of resources, rather than to compete directly.

Emerging geomicrobiology

The upper oceanic crust is continually created at mid-ocean ridges, where high-temperature basalt-seawater reactions generate energy to sustain life, with heat-generating hydrothermal currents that recycle and collect sediment. Anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms thrive in these environments and contribute to the recycling of hydrogen, carbon, and sulfur, and are believed to constitute the majority of microbial life in the oceans.

As the basalt rock is pushed back from the ridge, it cools and experiences cracking and oxidation over a period of approximately 10 million years, at which time the intensity of the basalt-seawater reactions and therefore the circulation of fluids and sediments decreases. Over 90% of the oceanic lithosphere is over 10 million years old and deficient in organic sediments and abundant in dissolved oxygen. It was therefore believed that relatively few microorganisms would live under these conditions.

In an article by Suzuki et al. (2020) Microbial cells are identified in samples of basaltic lava from the subsoil dating back more than 10 million years, living on abundant marine sediments rich in iron. Dissolved molecular oxygen has been found to penetrate the basalt rock, supporting aerobic microbes throughout the overlying sediment. Most of the microorganisms identified in these ancient basalts engage in heterotrophy and methanotrophy, feeding on dissolved organic matter brought in by seawater flows or generated by weathering of rocks.

The authors suggest that this realization could have implications for the possibility of life on Mars, whose basaltic crust formed around 4 billion years ago and was once covered with oceans like on Earth, providing a model around which astrobiologists could investigate the past existence of life on other planets.

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