Hydrosphere – Biofera http://biofera.org/ Thu, 10 Jun 2021 05:35:44 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.7.2 https://biofera.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/biofera-icon-150x150.png Hydrosphere – Biofera http://biofera.org/ 32 32 Protect the oceans, says the UN to the nations https://biofera.org/protect-the-oceans-says-the-un-to-the-nations/ https://biofera.org/protect-the-oceans-says-the-un-to-the-nations/#respond Wed, 09 Jun 2021 16:53:59 +0000 https://biofera.org/protect-the-oceans-says-the-un-to-the-nations/

THE UNITED NATIONS: UN Secretary-General António Guterres called on Tuesday (Wednesday in Manila) for efforts to protect the oceans.

The recently released Second Global Oceans Assessment confirmed that many of the benefits the global ocean provides to humanity are being undermined by human actions, he said in a post for World Oceans Day, which falls on June 8.

“Our seas are suffocated by plastic waste, which can be found from the most remote atolls to the deepest ocean trenches. Overfishing results in an annual loss of nearly $ 90 billion in net profits, which also increases the vulnerability of women, who are vital for the survival of artisanal fishing enterprises, ”he said.

Aerial photo taken on June 2, 2021 showing the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, Australia. The Great Barrier Reef, the world’s largest coral reef in the Australian state of Queensland, is described as “the most beautiful marine environment on the planet” and is the primary conservation target for Citizens of the Great Barrier Reef, a cooperative charitable organization that runs a series of preserving programs. XINHUA PHOTO

Carbon emissions cause the oceans to warm and acidify, destroying biodiversity and causing sea level rise that threatens heavily inhabited coasts, he noted.

The theme of this year’s celebration, “The Ocean: Life and Livelihood,” highlights the importance of the oceans to cultural life and the economic survival of communities around the world. More than 3 billion people depend on the ocean for their livelihoods, the vast majority in developing countries, Guterres said.

“As we strive to recover from Covid-19, let’s end our war on nature. This will be essential to achieve the sustainable development goals, keep within reach of the 1.5 degree target of the Paris Agreement and ensure the health of our oceans for present and future generations ”, a- he declared.

The ocean is the mass of salt water that covers about 71 percent of the Earth’s surface. It is also “one of the great bodies of water into which the great ocean is divided”. A common definition lists five oceans, in descending order by area, the Pacific, the Atlantic, India, the Antarctic and the Arctic.

The world’s ocean contains 97 percent of the Earth’s water, and oceanographers have said less than 20 percent of the oceans have been mapped. Since the global ocean is the main component of the earth’s hydrosphere, it is an integral part of life, part of the carbon cycle, and influences climate and weather patterns.

The ocean is home to 230,000 known species, but since much of it is unexplored, the number of species in the ocean is much larger, possibly over 2 million.


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Why is peace essential and how can it be planted and nourished? https://biofera.org/why-is-peace-essential-and-how-can-it-be-planted-and-nourished/ https://biofera.org/why-is-peace-essential-and-how-can-it-be-planted-and-nourished/#respond Sun, 23 May 2021 05:58:19 +0000 https://biofera.org/why-is-peace-essential-and-how-can-it-be-planted-and-nourished/

through Dr Junaid Jazib

Shining the earth and its living atmosphere, a plant goes from seed to canopy so silently and peacefully that no one can notice its growth with the naked eye. An aggregation of trees means shade, shelter and improved climate. Trees bind the atmosphere, earth, and hydrosphere together into a single complex that forms the support system for life on the blue planet.

Visitors stroll through the gardens where the majestic trees let their autumn branches hang down as if to welcome them.

Peace is the essence of the universe. It implies a state of order, integrity and harmony. Every constituent of the physical world, from an electron to the ever-expanding galaxies, exists and functions in a subordinate fashion to maintain peace and, therefore, harmony and stability in the cosmos. Peace binds the components together in a systematized whole. It is the ecological balance that represents this universal peace on earth. The ecological health of the planet indicates the degree of peace that its biophysical systems are capable of maintaining.

For humanity to survive and progress, peace is simply essential. Humans not only need to be at peace with the outside natural world, but also need to establish harmony and friendship between them.

Contemporary human society, however, lacks nothing but peace and unanimity. In fact, it is conflicts, violence and wars that characterize humanity today.

Ecological harm

Ecological damage, more often than not, is the basis of disputes and controversies that threaten world peace. Chaos in the natural world can only be reflected in the human world and vice versa. Environmental crises of various kinds resonate in human society in the form of controversies, conflicts and even wars. Conflicting claims on natural resources (such as land, water, mineral, floral, wildlife, etc.), economic disparities, poverty, smuggling, unemployment, inequalities, human suffering, pollution, climate change-related migration, trade, pollution, and mental health issues, The factors behind the bickering consume nothing less than world peace.

Baglihar dam: a view from the outside

Seemingly socio-political in origin, most regional, national or transnational controversies are rooted in environmental degradation. Political discussions ignoring the environmental links to problems cannot offer lasting solutions to these problems. They deserve sincere attention, essentially involving the requisite ecological wisdom and the necessary environmental corrections to obtain just and appropriate solutions, which can contribute substantially to world peace.

The environmental perspective seeks to prepare humans for global citizenship, of course, without altering or discrediting national identities. Employing ecological wisdom in dealing with human conflict essentially involves and offers viable and viable options that certainly help to resolve the existing problem and save the earth from unseen environmental risks. A serene and healthy environment is nothing other than the assurance of a peaceful human society.

To plant trees

Tackling an environmental problem is, in itself, a step towards peacebuilding. Tree planting, for example, offers a panacea to a multitude of human suffering and conflict endangering peace. A tree symbolizes life, peace, progress, energy and sustainability. Shining the earth and its living atmosphere, a plant goes from seed to canopy so silently and peacefully that no one can notice its growth with the naked eye. An aggregation of trees means shade, shelter and improved climate. Trees bind the atmosphere, earth, and hydrosphere together into a single complex that forms the support system for life on the blue planet.

Being the central role in the ecosphere, trees harvest solar energy making it available to all other life forms on earth. It provides oxygen and reduces carbon dioxide. Life revolves around trees. Human civilization has flourished and flourished among the trees. Food, shelter, clothing, medicine, firewood, timber, recreation, luxury, industry, etc. are unimaginable without trees.

Gujjar huts in the forests are temporary. In areas where there is snowfall, these are mostly thatched roofs that can be undone in a matter of minutes.

Trees help purify the air we breathe, filter the water we drink, and provide habitat for over 80% of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity. They absorb pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, dust and smoke, especially in an urban environment. Acting as important carbon sinks, trees offset the effects of climate change. Thanks to their crucial role in the hydrological cycle, trees improve soil productivity and reduce the intensity and frequency of droughts and floods. Forests provide jobs for over 1.6 billion people and are home to millions more. Herbs are the key ingredients in over 25% of all medicines. Much of the human population derives its subsistence from forests in the form of food or employment.

Why are trees essential?

A landscape rich in floral grandeur refreshes the eyes and troubled minds. Those who have contracted negativity, hopelessness and anxiety find a remedy for themselves by spending time among the trees. Studies confirm that hospital patients whose rooms overlook the trees recover faster than others without such a convenience.

Trees provide us with our material demands, spiritual fulfillment, psychological stability, wisdom and inspiration – all of which are a prerequisite for healthy living. The physical and mental health of individuals, obviously linked in a complex way to plants and forests, is fundamental to a peaceful social atmosphere. By playing a central role in reducing poverty, bringing social justice and eliminating economic disparities, help create a friendly social atmosphere.

Junaid Jazib

Trees on the face of the earth are synonymous with oxygen, energy, water, purity, stability, employment, health, peace and life. The absence or scarcity of trees means disorder, pollution, disease, drought, instability and death. The role plants play in the ecosphere is phenomenal in building and sustaining a peaceful human society. Peace on earth deprived of its green blanket is unimaginable.

Peace, in its ecological and socio-cultural descriptions, is crucial for humanity to arise and keep the earth habitable. Although peace is intrinsic to the biophysical systems of the planet, it is seriously threatened at present due to undue human interference in nature. Peace is also lacking in human society. Disturbances in the natural world have a profound and direct impact on humanity. The most effective approach humanity must take to achieve world peace is to allow nature to restore its peace.

(The author heads the Department of Environmental Sciences at Government Post-Graduate College, Rajouri. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not purport to reflect the opinions or views of Kashmir Life. )



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VeChain (VET) verifies results of 305 metric ton plastic cleanup in ocean https://biofera.org/vechain-vet-verifies-results-of-305-metric-ton-plastic-cleanup-in-ocean/ https://biofera.org/vechain-vet-verifies-results-of-305-metric-ton-plastic-cleanup-in-ocean/#respond Thu, 20 May 2021 05:00:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/vechain-vet-verifies-results-of-305-metric-ton-plastic-cleanup-in-ocean/

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ReSea Project, a Danish company providing a community-based solution to removing plastic from Indonesia’s oceans and rivers, shared its Cleanup Impact Status on Linkedin yesterday, indicating that they removed 305 metric tonnes of plastic waste from the ocean and verified the results using VeChain.

“Our collection data from January to April 2021 are now verified by DNV and we are happy to share with you that we have removed 305,239.62 kg (672,938.17 lbs) of plastic waste from oceans and rivers, ”they said in the post.

Highest level of traceability

VeChainThe ‘ToolChain platform’ tracked the cleaning process, tracking plastic waste from the point of extraction, how it was sorted and when it was delivered to a local waste bank.

The platform, based on blockchain technology, secures data in real time and records all stages in the context of certification. This allows DNV to digitally monitor and audit all plastic collections at all times, notifying all parties involved of any irregularities.

The ReSea project is only the second in the world certified under the DNV chain of custody standard for plastics recovered from the hydrosphere. Standard requirements ensure the traceability and integrity of plastic recovered from any body of water.

DNV is an expert insurance and risk management company this published the very first traceability standard to verify the authenticity and origin of plastic recovered from oceans and rivers.

Community-driven solution

The certification helps advance cleanup efforts in Indonesia, the world’s second largest contributor to ocean plastic pollution. As an independent third party, DNV also ensures fair compensation for cleanup crews, as people from local communities in Indonesia are employed to remove plastic waste from rivers and oceans.

With a community solution, ReSea improves living conditions and raises awareness in areas with poor waste management. The high level of transparency in the collection process allows companies to believe that their involvement has an environmental and social impact.

According to the Center for Biological Diversity, the world is currently witnessing a world tragedy for our oceans and marine life. The buildup of plastic found in floating garbage plots already accounts for around 40% of the world’s ocean surface and at current rates, plastic is expected to overtake all fish in the sea by 2050.

Besides reducing plastic consumption and improving waste management, large-scale cleaning solutions are essential to alleviate the plastic pollution crisis. And it looks like blockchain can help.

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Melting glaciers have shifted the Earth’s axis https://biofera.org/melting-glaciers-have-shifted-the-earths-axis/ https://biofera.org/melting-glaciers-have-shifted-the-earths-axis/#respond Wed, 19 May 2021 12:01:47 +0000 https://biofera.org/melting-glaciers-have-shifted-the-earths-axis/

Melting glaciers have shifted the Earth’s axis

In the 1990s, the Earth’s axis underwent a major change. It is normal for the Earth’s axis to move a few centimeters each year. But, in the 1990s, the direction of the polar drift suddenly changed and the pace of the drift accelerated. The reason for this sudden change was previously unclear, but a team of scientists from Beijing recently published an article that shows that the main driver behind the change in the direction of axial displacement was the melting of glaciers caused by global warming.

The Earth seen from a satellite. Source: NASA / Goddard Flight Center

The axis of rotation of the Earth is the figurative line around which the Earth rotates. The poles, north and south, are located at each end of the axis of rotation. In contrast, magnetic poles – the ones you can find using a compass – are usually offset from the geographic poles, and their location moves with the magnetic field.

“The Earth spins around its axis a bit like a top,” Suxia Liu explained in an interview with GlacierHub. “If the weight of one area is shifted to another area, the router will begin to tilt, causing a change in the axis of rotation.” Liu co-edited the article with his colleague Shanshan Deng from the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Bernhard Steinberger, a researcher at the GFZ German Research Centers for Geosciences who did not work on this article, explained how glaciers influence mass distribution. “The Earth always orients itself with respect to the pole in such a way as to move the masses as far as possible from the pole,” he wrote in an interview with GlacierHub. “For example, if there is a glacier growing in Greenland, the orientation of the Earth will change so that Greenland will be further from the Pole. If a glacier melts in Greenland, it would change in the opposite direction. “

Before anthropogenic forces, the main drivers of polar drift were ocean currents and the movements of molten rock deep below the Earth’s surface. The research team reanalyzed existing data to determine what role terrestrial water storage – how water is dispersed over the Earth’s surface and into oceans and groundwater – played in this. change. They determined that the main driver of the change in direction was the melting of the glaciers and the resulting change in mass distribution.

Most of the world’s glaciers are above ground, and when these glaciers melt, the water they contain moves through bodies of water. “Shifting water storage away from aerial glaciers in one area of ​​the Earth’s surface to another results in a polar shift due to the change in weight,” Liu said.

An icy white expanse is dotted with puddles of bright blue water.

An aerial view of the Greenland ice cap is dotted with “lakes” of blue meltwater. Source: Bernt Rostad / Flickr

In 1995, the direction of the planet’s polar drift suddenly shifted from south to east. Today, scientists can connect polar drift to glacier loss using gravitational data from NASA’s twin GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites, launched in 2002. However, as the satellites had not yet launched in the 1990s, researchers had to piece together the reasons for the sudden change in direction without these detailed gravitational records.

Besides the greenhouse gas emissions that cause glaciers to melt, other human activities are responsible for changes in the earth’s hydrosphere. The team also found that groundwater pumping was and continues to be a polar drift factor. Pumping groundwater for drinking water, irrigation, and manufacturing has been common practice since the 1960s. The United States alone uses 82.3 billion gallons of groundwater every day. Water that is removed from the subsoil ends up in the atmosphere as it evaporates from irrigated crops or in the ocean as runoff from irrigation systems to rivers, redistributing mass around the world and changing the pattern. rotation of the planet.

Large white and blue tipped pipes plunge into dusty brown ground.A groundwater pumping station in the Central Valley of California. Source: Chris Austin/ Flickr

As Earth’s glaciers recede at an unprecedented rate, the mass of the planet is constantly redistributed. The team’s results suggest that we can expect the hydrosphere to continue to cause the Earth’s axis to shift in the years to come.

Although imperceptible to humans without the use of specialized instruments, the enormous mass of the Earth has changed more than ever. Since 2005, the rate of polar drift has increased by about four centimeters per year. “Change is nothing that an ordinary person notices in their day-to-day life,” said Steinberger. “You would really have to wait millions of years to notice anything.” It is, however, a stark reminder of the magnitude of the effects humans have on the planet.



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Top Companies, Trends, Growth Factors and Forecast to 2025 https://biofera.org/top-companies-trends-growth-factors-and-forecast-to-2025/ https://biofera.org/top-companies-trends-growth-factors-and-forecast-to-2025/#respond Wed, 19 May 2021 11:18:11 +0000 https://biofera.org/top-companies-trends-growth-factors-and-forecast-to-2025/

The advanced report on ‘Powered Data Buoys Market’ Added By Market Study Report, LLC, provides details on the current and future growth trends of the company as well as insights into a myriad of regions across the geographic landscape of the “ powered data buoy market ”. The report also develops complete details regarding demand and supply analysis, participation of major industry players, and market share growth statistics of commercial sphere.

The Powered Data Buoy market report is a comprehensive documentation of the dominant industry trends and aims to educate the readers on the competitive scenario and regional business dynamics. It relies on the expert word for word to warn of dormant challenges in the industry, while providing insight into profitable opportunities in various market segments. In addition, the study has many scenarios, including the impact of COVID-19, allowing companies to formulate contingency plans and stakeholders to make informed decisions.

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  • An overview of the influence of the coronavirus on the global economy
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  • The report fragments the Motorized Data Buoy market into regions namely North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Southeast Asia, Middle East & Africa, South America.
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  • The report presents data on accumulated sales, realized profit and contribution to revenue in recent past, as well as forecast on valuation.

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Using CO2 to create a limestone rock substitute https://biofera.org/using-co2-to-create-a-limestone-rock-substitute/ https://biofera.org/using-co2-to-create-a-limestone-rock-substitute/#respond Tue, 11 May 2021 07:00:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/using-co2-to-create-a-limestone-rock-substitute/

Image Credit: Parmna / Shutterstock.com

A California-based cleantech pioneer – Blue Planet Ltd. – learns from nature to make concrete more sustainable by capturing biomimetic carbon. The company’s economically sustainable carbon capture process creates a limestone rock substitute that can replace aggregate for concrete, dramatically reducing the material’s ultimate environmental impact.

Substitute for limestone for greener concrete

As populations and economies grow in the world, more and more building and infrastructure projects are undertaken each year. This growth has serious consequences for the environment and, in the face of an impending climate catastrophe, ways to reduce this impact are a top priority.

One of the most harmful elements of this continued global development is the widespread use of concrete as a building material. The environmental consequences of concrete are well documented and stem from a variety of factors. Among these is the need for large amounts of rock material for the aggregate – which is ecologically expensive to mine, transport and process.

Blue Planet’s biomimetic carbon capture process creates a limestone substitute that can replace natural limestone quarried (the main ingredient in concrete).

Using a process of carbon mineralization – similar to the natural formation of ooids – Blue Planet produces coarse and fine aggregates from sequestered CO2. The company claims that using this aggregate is the most efficient way to deliver carbon neutral or negative concrete.

Importantly, the limestone rock substitute produced by Blue Planet is equivalent to the limestone mined in terms of strength, performance and cost.

Biomimetic carbon capture: learning from nature

The blue planet’s process for carbon capture is similar to the natural ooid rock formation. Ooids are formed when layers come together around a nucleus in concentric layers. These crystalline layers can be arranged radially, tangentially or randomly around the nucleus, which is typically a shell fragment or a grain of quartz.

Mimicking this natural ooid formation, Blue Planet introduces CO2 captured combustion gases to a water-based capture solution. This process results in a carbonate solution which is coated onto a core or substrate. The coating is described as synthetic limestone (CaCO3).

The carbonate mineral coating is composed of 44% captured CO2 so that each tonne of the final Blue Planet product represents 440 kilograms of carbon dioxide sequestered from the atmosphere.

CO captured2 the coating is then exposed to a recycled aggregate material which contains sufficient alkalinity. Common rock waste or industrial waste is recycled for this purpose to further increase the positive environmental impact of the final material.

When the carbonate solution is exposed to the alkaline aggregate substrate, the metal ions present in the aggregate, such as calcium, magnesium and iron, are recharged. This reaction causes the metal ions to break free and combine with the carbonate solution to form a mineral coating – much the same way ooid rocks are formed.

Because there is no purification step required for Blue Planet’s biomimetic carbon capture – unlike other carbon sequestration methods – it sequesters carbon more efficiently. Purification is both an energy intensive and capital intensive process, so removing this step results in more economically sustainable carbon capture that also uses much less energy.

Creating Concrete Aggregates From Thin Air: Introducing Blue Planet

Video credit: Healthy Climate Alliance / YouTube.com

Blue Planet Limestone Rock Substitute Applications

The economically sustainable carbon capture product described here replaces the natural limestone that must be extracted from quarries to meet the ever increasing global demand for concrete.

Blue Planet factories can produce aggregates of various sizes, from fine sand-like materials to coarse gravel. In addition, these aggregates trap atmospheric carbon in their carbonate coating, preventing it from entering the atmosphere or hydrosphere.

Already, development projects are using this material to ensure longer lasting results without compromising performance or costs. For example, San Francisco International Airport in California recently used Blue Planet’s limestone substitute to complete a major development project with integrated and economically sustainable carbon capture. This significantly reduced the overall carbon footprint of the project.

Carbon sequestration technologies like this are an important part of our collective effort to reduce the number of harmful COs.2 in the atmosphere and hydrosphere. By working to develop an economically sustainable carbon capture process, Blue Planet contributes to the global CO challenge2 reduction significantly.

References and further reading

“Economically sustainable carbon capture.” Blue planet. [Online] http://www.blueplanet-ltd.com/.

Matter, Juerg, M. et al. (2016). “Rapid carbon mineralization for the permanent elimination of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions.” Science. [Online] https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad8132.

Russo, ME, Olivieri, G., Salatino, P. and A. Marzocchella (2013). “CO2 capture by biomimetic adsorption: enzymatically mediated CO2 uptake for the process of carbon sequestration and storage after combustion.” Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management. [Online] https://research.wur.nl/en/publications/co2-capture-by-biomimetic-adsorption-enzyme-mediated-co2-absorpti.

Wang, Yin, Shiying Lin and Yoshizo Suzuki (2007). “Study of calcination of limestone with capture of CO2: decomposition behavior in a CO2 atmosphere.” Energy fuels. [Online] https://doi.org/10.1021/ef700318c.

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author, expressed in a private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T / A AZoNetwork, the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer is part of the terms and conditions of use of this website.


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Climate science: the new clock is ticking, and it’s in Union Square | Notice https://biofera.org/climate-science-the-new-clock-is-ticking-and-its-in-union-square-notice/ https://biofera.org/climate-science-the-new-clock-is-ticking-and-its-in-union-square-notice/#respond Sat, 08 May 2021 09:00:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/climate-science-the-new-clock-is-ticking-and-its-in-union-square-notice/

The language used to describe what is happening to our planet’s climate as we continue to emit large amounts of greenhouse gases has changed in the recent past.

At first, the term “global warming” was mainly used because it actually described the fact that the atmosphere was indeed warming. Then it became clear that there was much more to it.

The media and scientists then began to use a more comprehensive term “climate change”. This broader terminology reflected severe weather events fueled by increased energy, or heat, in the oceans and on land that supercharged hurricanes, droughts, rising sea levels and heavy rains. at levels never seen before. Hurricane Harvey dumped about 4 feet of rain over Houston in 2017.

CLIMATE CRISES

This led to a “climate emergency” which became the currency for some time.

Today, the term “climate crises” is used to describe our fuller understanding of the impact of this increased heat on all of the Earth’s climate systems, the hydrosphere, the geosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere and the Earth. cryosphere.

Descriptive terms currently in use include references to climatic tipping points, feedback loops, changes in ocean currents, significant loss of land ice like glaciers and ice caps, species extinction, loss of permafrost, floods, desertification and millions of climate refugees on the move around the world, and more. Phew!

So, climate activists have now developed an 80-foot-long clock on the side of a building in Union Square in New York City to remind all of us that these crises exist and time is running out.

The clock shows 7 years, 102 days, 12:02:01 hours. This duration is based on information contained in a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which indicates that as of 2018, humans could release 420 gigatonnes (billion tonnes) of carbon into the atmosphere. .

That would still give us a two-thirds chance of keeping the global temperature rise at 1.5 degrees Celsius, the extended goal of the Paris climate accords.

KEEP TIME

Based on the rate at which we burn fossil fuels, around 42 gigatons per year, those 7+ years is the time left to transform the global energy economy and shift to 100% energy sources. renewables and avoid the worst climate impacts. .

Clocks like this have traveled the world from Paris to New York to Berlin and more. According to their website, one can also get a kit to build a clock for a classroom, university and / or hometown.

Financial markets seem to have started to realize the risk of these climate crises. In March 2021, the Federal Reserve declared that “climate change increases risks to financial stability”.

The reserve has also set up a climate committee to assess and manage this systemic climate risk. In addition, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission has appointed its first-ever senior policy advisor on climate and environmental, social and governance issues.

This new awareness may be just in time. During the period 1980 to 2020, there were 285 severe weather events in the United States alone, costing over $ 1 billion each, 15 of which was the average annual number over the past 5 years.

In total, the cost of these extreme events is nearly $ 2 trillion, with more than 14,000 deaths. Every state in the United States has experienced extreme weather events, according to the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Non-action is really starting to cost us dearly.

AN ENERGY ISLAND

Let’s look at a country that is aware of the “climate clock” and its implications and that is doing its part to deal with these climate crises. See the photo of Danish Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen on a boat outside Copenhagen on April 22, with wind turbines in an offshore wind farm in the background. She had just given a lecture on Denmark’s plans to meet its energy needs through renewable energies.

Denmark responded to the oil crisis of the 1970s with policies to decentralize its energy system, improve energy efficiency, and in 1991 Denmark was the site of the first offshore wind farm.

In addition, “Denmark has shown how to integrate high levels of wind energy into a reliable electricity grid and do so in often extremely cold weather” [Paul Horn/InsideClimate News].

Please note the map of Denmark and the surrounding area titled ‘An Island of Energy’ and let’s take a look at the future of renewable energy in Denmark.

Their plan is to develop a wind farm that could eventually provide 10 gigawatts of renewable energy. When completed, the project will reduce their emissions by 70% from their 1990 levels by 2030.

The project includes an artificial island that would be built in the shallow waters of the North Sea that would house a battery bank to store and level the supplied energy, maintenance equipment and other logistical support.

It would collect the energy produced by hundreds of turbines using underground and submarine cables and distribute that energy both in Denmark and to other grids in Germany and elsewhere.

The focus here is on off-shore winds which are stronger and more stable away from land.

Another photo also provided by the Danish Energy Agency shows what this island would look like. The large battery banks are to the left, with berths for maintenance and other vessels to the right.

Currently, Denmark leads the world in the share of its electricity from wind with over 50 percent. Lithuania comes next with 39 percent, followed by the United States with 7 percent.

And Denmark has passed laws to achieve 100% renewable energy in all sectors by 2050.

Hopefully the current US administration will do its part to meet global greenhouse gas emissions targets.

Raymond N. Johnson, Ph.D.’s scientific career spanned 30 years in research and development as an organic / analytical chemist; he is currently the founder and director of the Institute of Climate Studies USA. Climate Science is published on the second Sunday of each month.


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The value of Earth’s natural infrastructure drops to $ 33 https://biofera.org/the-value-of-earths-natural-infrastructure-drops-to-33/ https://biofera.org/the-value-of-earths-natural-infrastructure-drops-to-33/#respond Thu, 06 May 2021 07:00:00 +0000 https://biofera.org/the-value-of-earths-natural-infrastructure-drops-to-33/

SAN DIEGO, May 06, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) – A new study estimates that the value of Earth’s natural infrastructure such as the atmosphere, forests, wetlands and oceans has fallen to $ 33 billion – after taken into account the 5 billion dollars in damages to humanity.

The analysis, conducted by Environmental Business International (EBI) and originally published in the Fall 2020 edition of the Climate Change Business Journal (CCBJ), estimates the economic value of the Earth, without humans, at 38 quadrillion. of dollars. One quadrillion equals 1,000 trillion.

Earth’s atmosphere has lost about $ 1.2 quadrillion in economic value compared to its prehuman value of $ 12 quadrillion, while forests and wetlands have lost 42% and 45% of their value, respectively.

The EBI team, led by Grant Ferrier, founder of environmental industry research firm EBI and editor of the Environmental Business Journal since 1988, has compiled and tabulated estimates from numerous studies, scholarly and scientific journals and concluded that the Earth’s atmosphere and forests have suffered the greatest loss of economic value since the beginning of human civilization.

Click here to read the CCBJ study summary.

“By recognizing the finite value of the Earth and its resources and ecosystems – or its ‘natural capital’ or ‘natural infrastructure’ – we can show the validity of implementing economic instruments such as pollution taxes or resource extraction costs to start taking into account the overall cost value of our planet, ”Ferrier said.

“Conversely, business models should increasingly attribute credits to the positive impacts generated by effective management of our natural infrastructure to help preserve, enhance, restore or even create more value,” Ferrier said. “We regularly measure a country’s gross domestic product, but even attempts to report a regular green GDP do not include the rise and fall of natural infrastructure or the amount needed to protect or restore depleted natural resources. “

EBI model of the economic value of natural infrastructure (trillions of dollars)

Natural Active Pre-human 2020 Loss
Atmosphere 12,000 10,800 1,200
Hydrosphere
Oceans 4000 3,600 400
Ice caps (cryosphere) 600 400 200
Lakes and rivers 2,200 1,600 600
Hydrological cycle 2,600 2500 100
Other 2,000 1,800 200
Biosphere
Forests 2,400 1,400 1000
Swamps 400 220 180
Biodiversity 6000 5,200 800
Other 2,000 1,400 600
Lithosphere 4000 3,900 100
Total 38,200 32 820 5,380

Source: Environmental Business International Inc. Estimates are derived from a compilation of estimates and opinions from multiple sources of NGO, think tank and academic articles on each item, as well as published articles. on natural capital and ecosystem services; and interviews and emails. communications with published analysts, researchers and environmental economists.

Modeling the valuation of natural resources is similar to how insurance industries and their actuarial analysts apply economic values ​​to measure or predict monetary damage resulting from contamination, pollution, major weather events, climate risks and other impacts on ecosystems.

For example, the American Forest Association estimates the annual economic value of a tree to be around $ 500 in today’s dollars. This value takes into account the contribution of a tree to air quality, erosion control, shelter and temperature modulation. With approximately 3 trillion trees on Earth, forests represent $ 1.5 quadrillion in economic value. By comparison, before the advent of agriculture over 10,000 years ago – and more recently the lumber industry – scientists estimate that the earth had twice as many trees as it does today.

“This study serves as an alarming reminder to governments, businesses and citizens that every tree we cut, every mountain of minerals we remove and every contaminant we place in the atmosphere has a progressive negative economic impact on Earth,” said Ferrier. “The human impact on our atmosphere, oceans, forests, lakes, rivers and wetlands should be factored into our economic system in order to create more sustainable environmental and economic policies that increasingly need to be considered. integrated into an economic system that values ​​the environment rather than freely allowing its exploitation, ”said Ferrier.

Ferrier acknowledges the inaccurate nature of EBI’s current estimates in the “meta-study” and acknowledges the work of pioneers in environmental economics such as Stern, Costanza and others who provided estimates of the economic value of natural capital or ecosystem services. “Environmental economics is by no means a new field, but I believe its findings have not yet had enough influence to shape policies, investments and the fate of our natural infrastructure,” said Ferrier.

Further study estimates the economic value of man-made infrastructure such as railways, paved roads, buildings, dams, gas pipelines, power cables, etc., in billions of dollars. However, it is much less than the value of the earth’s total natural infrastructure. By comparison, the world’s 193 economies contribute about $ 100,000 billion in gross world product measured in traditional economic terms.

“This study points out that repairing a mile more of pavement or adding a mile more of freeway is less important to maintaining the quality of human life on Earth than restoring or maintaining one more hectare of wetlands, native forests, coral reefs, desert or arctic habitat, said Ferrier. “Man and nature can indeed exist in harmony. We just need a an economic system that incorporates this basic premise. Recognizing the additional economic impact of unsustainable behavior is the first step in preventing the continued degradation of our natural infrastructure. “

About Environmental Business International
Environmental Business International Inc. (EBI) is an independent private research and publishing company that generates strategic business intelligence in the environment industry and the climate change industry. With 33 years of market research and environmental analysis across all key industry segments, EBI provides proprietary information to executives, investors, analysts, policy makers and management consulting firms in the form of reviews sales, executive events, research reports and statistical data sets. Visit www.EBOnline.org.

Press contact: Marc Lumpkin, Altitude Public Relations, marc@altitudepr.com


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Main repositories of MLOps tools on Github https://biofera.org/main-repositories-of-mlops-tools-on-github/ https://biofera.org/main-repositories-of-mlops-tools-on-github/#respond Tue, 04 May 2021 10:38:44 +0000 https://biofera.org/main-repositories-of-mlops-tools-on-github/

MLOps was introduced to provide an end-to-end machine learning development process for designing, building, and managing reproducible, testable, and scalable ML-based software. MLOps have enabled organizations to collaborate across departments and speed up workflows, which typically hit the wall due to various production issues. In the next section, we present the best MLOps tool repositories available on Github.

(Image credits: Microsoft Azure)

Here are the best Github MLOps tool repositories:

Seldon core

Seldon Core is an MLOps framework for packaging, deploying, monitoring, and managing thousands of production machine learning models. It converts machine learning models (based on Tensorflow, Pytorch, H2o, etc.) or language wrappers (based on Python, Java, etc.) into production microservices.

Seldon Core makes it possible to scale to thousands of production machine learning models and provides advanced ML functionality including advanced metrics, request logging, explanations, outlier detectors, A testing / B, the Canaries and more. It facilitates deployment with their prepackaged inference servers and language wrappers.

Check out the full repo here.

Polyaxon

Polyaxon can be used to create, train, and monitor large-scale deep learning applications. This platform is designed to ensure the reproducibility, automation and scalability of ML applications. Polyaxon can be deployed in any data center, cloud provider, or can be hosted. It supports all major deep learning frameworks like Tensorflow, MXNet, Caffe, Torch, etc.

According to the team that developed Polyaxon, the platform makes it possible to develop ML applications faster, easier and more efficiently by managing workloads with intelligent container and node management. It even turns GPU servers into self-service shared resources for teams.

Installation: $ pip install -U polyaxon

Check out the full repo here.

Hydrosphere at the service

Hydrosphere Serving provides deployment and versioning options for machine learning models in production. This MLOps platform:

  • Can serve machine learning models developed in any language or framework. It wraps them in a Docker image and deploys it to the production cluster, exposing the HTTP, gRPC, and Kafka interfaces.
  • Shade the traffic between different model versions to examine the behavior of different model versions on the same traffic.
  • Releases control models and pipelines as they are deployed.

Check out the full repo here.

Metaflow

Metaflow was originally developed at Netflix to meet the needs of its data scientists who work on demanding real-life data science projects. Netflix’s open-source metaflow in 2019.

Metaflow helps users design your workflow, run it at scale, and deploy it to production. It automatically versions and tracks all your experiences and data. Metaflow provides integrated integrations to storage, compute, and machine learning services in the AWS cloud. No code change required.

Check out the full repo here.

See also

ClearML: MLOps solution without integration

Kedro

Kedro is an open source Python framework that can be used to create reproducible, maintainable, and modular data science code. Kedro is built on the foundations of software engineering and applies them to machine learning code; concepts applied include modularity, separation of concerns and version management.

Check the full repo here

BentoML

As a flexible, high-performance framework, BentoML can be used to serve, manage, and deploy machine learning models. It does this by providing a standard interface for describing a prediction service and explaining how to effectively perform model inference and how model service workloads can integrate with cloud infrastructures.

BentoML features include:

  • Online service ready for production.
  • Supports multiple ML frameworks including PyTorch, TensorFlow.
  • Containerized model server for production deployment with Docker, Kubernetes, etc.
  • Automatically discover and package all dependencies.
  • Serve any Python code with trained models.
  • Health check endpoint and Prometheus / metrics endpoint for monitoring.

Check out the full repo here.

Flyte

Flyte provides production-grade, native and secure container workflow platforms optimized for large-scale processing. It is written in Golang and enables highly concurrent, scalable and maintainable workflows for machine learning and data processing. It connects disparate compute backends using a type-safe data dependency graph and records all changes to a pipeline, allowing time to rewind.

Check out the full repo here.


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Climate change is causing the Earth’s axis to shift https://biofera.org/climate-change-is-causing-the-earths-axis-to-shift/ https://biofera.org/climate-change-is-causing-the-earths-axis-to-shift/#respond Mon, 03 May 2021 12:19:51 +0000 https://biofera.org/climate-change-is-causing-the-earths-axis-to-shift/

A study published in Geophysical Research Letters of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) indicates that due to the significant melting of glaciers due to the increase in global temperature, the axis of rotation of our planet is moving more than d habit since the 1990s.

Rising sea levels, heat waves, melting glaciers and storms are some of the well-known consequences of climate change. New research has added another impact to this list – marked changes in the axis along which the Earth rotates.

A study published in Geophysical Research Letters of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) indicates that due to the significant melting of glaciers due to the increase in global temperature, the axis of rotation of our planet is moving more than d habit since the 1990s. Although this change should not affect daily life, it can change the length of the day by a few milliseconds …

Displacement of the Earth’s axis

The Earth’s axis of rotation is the line along which it spins around itself as it spins around the Sun. The points on which the axis intersects the surface of the planet are the geographic north and south poles. The location of the poles is not fixed, however, as the axis moves due to changes in the distribution of land mass around the planet. So the poles move when the axis moves, and the motion is called “polar motion”.

According to NASA, 20th century data shows that the axis of rotation has drifted about 10 centimeters per year. That is to say over a century, the polar movement exceeds 10 meters. In general, polar motion is caused by changes in the hydrosphere, atmosphere, oceans, or solid Earth. But now climate change is increasing the degree of pole wandering.

What the new study says

Since the 1990s, climate change has melted billions of tonnes of glacial ice in the oceans. This caused the poles of the Earth to move in new directions.

According to the study, the north pole has moved in a new direction eastward since the 1990s, due to changes in the hydrosphere (i.e. the way water is stored on Earth). From 1995 to 2020, the average drift speed was 17 times faster than from 1981 to 1995. In addition, over the past four decades, the poles have moved about 4 meters apart.

The calculations were based on satellite data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, as well as estimates of glacier loss and groundwater pumping dating back to the 1980s, according to Science Alert.

“The faster melting of the ice under global warming was the most likely cause of the change in direction of the polar drift in the 1990s,” the study said.

While the melting ice is the main factor behind the increase in polar motion, the depletion of groundwater also adds to the phenomenon. While millions of tons of water from the subsoil are pumped each year for drinking, industries or agriculture, most of it ends up reaching the sea, thus redistributing the mass of the planet.


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